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Table 5 Association of in-facility delivery with maternal characteristics, household characteristics, intervention exposures, and barriers to carea

From: Health and wealth in Mesoamerica: findings from Salud Mesomérica 2015

Characteristic Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
(N = 15,563) (N = 15,494) (N = 14,904)
Pseudo-R2 = 0.297 Pseudo-R2 = 0.301 Pseudo-R2 = 0.306
  OR (95 % CI) p-value OR (95 % CI) p-value OR (95 % CI) p-value
Country       
 GTM 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
 HND 15.58 (11.37-21.37) <0.001 15.13 (11.08-20.64) <0.001 16.36 (11.83-22.61) <0.001
 MEX 3.17 (2.40-4.18) <0.001 3.17 (2.40-4.18) <0.001 2.17 (1.58-2.98) <0.001
 NIC 28.53 (20.00-40.69) <0.001 27.42 (19.20-39.17) <0.001 28.09 (19.59-40.29) <0.001
 PAN 16.59 (10.12-27.20) <0.001 19.27 (11.34-32.73) <0.001 20.07 (11.73-34.35) <0.001
 SLV 19.53 (14.58-26.17) <0.001 17.64 (12.76-24.38) <0.001 20.42 (14.75-28.28) <0.001
Household expenditure       
 Quintile 1 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
 Quintile 2 1.30 (1.07-1.58) 0.009 1.31 (1.07-1.60) 0.010 1.31 (1.07-1.61) 0.010
 Quintile 3 1.59 (1.28-1.97) <0.001 1.59 (1.28-1.99) <0.001 1.53 (1.22-1.91) <0.001
 Quintile 4 2.39 (1.92-2.99) <0.001 2.38 (1.90-2.99) <0.001 2.24 (1.78-2.83) <0.001
 Quintile 5 3.06 (2.43-3.85) <0.001 2.98 (2.37-3.77) <0.001 2.82 (2.23-3.56) <0.001
Asset score 3.74 (1.91-7.33) <0.001 3.81 (1.88-7.72) <0.001 2.41 (1.18-4.92) 0.016
Attained education level       
 No schooling 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
 Primary school or literacy course 1.61 (1.35-1.92) <0.001 1.58 (1.34-1.88) <0.001 1.46 (1.22-1.75) <0.001
 Secondary school or higher 3.20 (2.56-3.99) <0.001 2.98 (2.39-3.72) <0.001 2.64 (2.11-3.31) <0.001
Age (years)       
 15-19 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
 20-24 1.18 (0.97-1.43) 0.097 1.11 (0.91-1.37) 0.294 1.10 (0.89-1.35) 0.392
 25-29 1.49 (1.22-1.82) <0.001 1.33 (1.08-1.64) 0.007 1.28 (1.03-1.58) 0.025
 30-34 2.38 (1.84-3.07) <0.001 2.08 (1.61-2.70) <0.001 1.99 (1.53-2.59) <0.001
 35-39 3.76 (2.78-5.09) <0.001 3.18 (2.36-4.29) <0.001 3.05 (2.23-4.17) <0.001
 40-44 3.41 (2.35-4.96) <0.001 2.83 (1.94-4.13) <0.001 2.62 (1.78-3.84) <0.001
 45-49 4.81 (2.62-8.83) <0.001 3.79 (2.05-7.02) <0.001 3.46 (1.85-6.50) <0.001
Parity 0.72 (0.69-0.76) <0.001 0.75 (0.71-0.78) <0.001 0.75 (0.72-0.79) <0.001
Household size    0.96 (0.92-1.00) 0.043 0.96 (0.92-1.00) 0.069
Head of household is female    1.29 (1.01-1.64) 0.038 1.24 (0.96-1.60) 0.093
Occupation       
 Employed and working for money    1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
 Homemaker    0.71 (0.53-0.95) 0.023 0.73 (0.54-0.98) 0.037
 Otherb    1.18 (0.75-1.88) 0.472 1.25 (0.79-2.00) 0.341
Marital status       
 Single    1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
 Married    1.25 (0.94-1.65) 0.127 1.23 (0.91-1.64) 0.173
 Union    0.97 (0.75-1.24) 0.780 0.95 (0.73-1.23) 0.674
 Divorced, separated, widowed, other    0.93 (0.68-1.26) 0.625 0.97 (0.71-1.32) 0.839
Insured      1.77 (1.40-2.24) <0.001
Travel time to usual health facilityc      1.00 (1.00-1.00) 0.869
Received counseling from a community health worker in the past month      0.72 (0.59-0.89) 0.002
Exposure to any media in the past week (newspaper, radio, television)      1.31 (1.11-1.54) 0.001
Barriers to seeking medical care       
 Mother had no recent illness      1.15 (0.86-1.53) 0.348
 Care sought for mother’s recent illness      1.27 (0.90-1.79) 0.180
Among mothers who were recently ill and did not seek care       
 Care is too expensive      1.42 (0.77-2.60) 0.258
 Health center is too far away      1.10 (0.53-2.28) 0.788
 Could not get transportation      0.69 (0.38-1.24) 0.210
 Facility infrastructure is poor      2.72 (1.01-7.30) 0.048
 Facility has insufficient drugs      1.09 (0.72-1.65) 0.676
 Health center is not well equipped      0.59 (0.30-1.19) 0.139
 Staff are difficult to deal with      1.67 (0.84-3.34) 0.146
 Staff is not knowledgeable      2.38 (0.59-9.58) 0.224
 No trust in staff      0.71 (0.32-1.61) 0.417
 Could not get permission to go to the doctor      0.59 (0.03-10.85) 0.720
 Did not want to go alone      0.76 (0.28-2.12) 0.606
 Too busy with work or children      0.69 (0.42-1.16) 0.164
  1. CI confidence interval, GTM Guatemala, HND Honduras, MEX Mexico, NIC Nicaragua, OR odds ratio, PAN Panama, SLV El Salvador
  2. aModels are adjusted for all covariates listed in the corresponding column. All estimates are survey-weighted. Pseudo-R2 is based on the unweighted logistic regression model fit
  3. bThis includes women who reported being employed but not working during the week prior to the survey, a current student, retired, disabled, or unemployed
  4. cIf travel time to the usual health facility was missing, we used first the travel time to the closest facility; if that was also missing we used the median travel time to the usual health facility for the segment