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Table 2 Prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in different countries of the world according to WHO sub-regional classification

From: Global burden of disease due to smokeless tobacco consumption in adults: analysis of data from 113 countries

WHO sub-regions Country M F Source Year
Africa (Region D) Algeria 21 0.4 STEPS [38] 2005
Benin 12.7 5.7 STEPS [38] 2008
Burkina Faso 3.86 DHS [39] 2011
Cameroon 1.94 0.94 DHS [39] 2011
Cape Verde 3.5 5.8 STEPS [38] 2007
Chad 1.9 0.4 STEPS [38] 2008
Comoros 7.72 2.99 DHS [39] 2012
Gabon 0.48 0.34 DHS [39] 2012
Gambia 0.8 1.4 STEPS [38] 2010
Ghana 1.33 0.2 DHS [39] 2008
Guinea 1.4 1.5 STEPS [38] 2009
Liberia 2.3 2.4 DHS [40] 2007
Madagascar 24.66 19.6 DHS [39] 2009
Mali 5 1.2 STEPS [38] 2007
Mauritania 5.7 28.3 STEPS [38] 2006
Niger 4.55 2.3 DHS [39] 2012
Nigeria 3.2 0.5 DHS [40] 2008
Sao Tome & Principe 3.8 1.9 STEPS [38] 2009
Senegal 6.63 0.23 DHS [39] 2011
Sierra Leone 3 12 STEPS [38] 2009
Togo 5.1 2.2 STEPS [38] 2010
Africa (Region E) Botswana 7.2 14.5 STEPS [38] 2007
Burundi 0.03 0.31 DHS [39] 2011
Congo (Brazzaville) 8.3 1.54 DHS [39] 2012
Congo (Republic) 8.67 3.22 DHS [39] 2013
Cote d'Ivoire 0.61 1.27 DHS [39] 2012
Eritrea 5.8 0.2 STEPS [38] 2004
Ethiopia 1.94 0.2 DHS [39] 2011
Kenya 2.05 1.29 DHS [39] 2008
Lesotho 1.3 9.1 DHS [40] 2009
Malawi 1.9 5 STEPS [38] 2009
Mozambique 10.94 0.82 DHS [39] 2011
Namibia 1.8 2.3 DHS [40] 2006–07
Rwanda 5.8 2.73 DHS [39] 2011
South Africa 2.4 10.9 DHS [41] 2003
Swaziland 2.6 0.8 STEPS [38] 2007
Tanzania 2.03 0.83 DHS [39] 2010
Uganda 2.94 1.5 DHS [39] 2011
Zambia 0.3 1.2 DHS [39] 2007
Zimbabwe 1.6 0.4 DHS [41] 2011
Americas (Region A) Canada 2 ICS [41] 2011
USA 6.5 0.4 ICS [41] 2010
Americas (Region B) Argentina 0.1 0.2 GATS [42] 2012
Barbados 0 0.6 STEPS [38] 2007
Brazil 0.6 0.3 GATS [42] 2010
Dominican Republic 1.9 0.3 DHS [40] 2007
Grenada 2.2 0.3 STEPS [38] 2011
Mexico 0.3 0.3 GATS [42] 2009
Paraguay 3 1.6 ICS [41] 2011
St Kitts & Nevisa 0.3 0.1 STEPS [38] 2007
Trinidad & Tobago 0.5 0.3 STEPS [38] 2011
Venezuela 6.2 0.9 ICS [41] 2011
Americas (Region D) Haiti 2.5 DHS [40] 2005–06
Eastern Mediterranean (Region B) Libya 2.2 0.1 STEPS [38] 2009
Saudi Arabia 1.3 0.5 STEPS [38] 2004
Tunisia 8.6 2.2 ICS [41] 2005–06
Eastern Mediterranean (Region D) Egypt 4.8 0.3 GATS [42] 2009
Iraq 1.6 0.3 STEPS [38] 2006
Pakistan 16.3 2.44 DHS [43] 2012–13
Sudan 24.1 1 STEPS [38] 2005
Yemen 15.1 6.2 ICS [41] 2003
Europe (Region A) Austria 7.8 1.1 SEBS [44] 2012
Belgium 1.1 0.6 SEBS [44] 2012
Cyprus 2.1 0.4 SEBS [44] 2012
Czech Republic 2.5 0.4 SEBS [44] 2012
Denmark 3 1 ICS [41] 2010
Finland 5.5 0.3 ICS [41] 2011
France 1.2 0.6 SEBS [44] 2012
Germany 3.4 3.4 SEBS [44] 2012
Iceland 5.97 ICS [41] 2008
Ireland 2.2 0.9 SEBS [44] 2012
Italy 1.8 1.5 SEBS [44] 2012
Luxembourg 1.8 1 SEBS [44] 2012
Malta 5.5 1.5 SEBS [44] 2012
Netherlands 0.3 0.1 ICS [41] 2011
Norway 20 6 ICS [41] 2011
Portugal 4.4 1.1 SEBS [44] 2012
Slovenia 1.8 0.4 SEBS [44] 2012
Spain 0.4 0.2 SEBS [44] 2012
Sweden 24 7 ICS [41] 2011
Switzerland 4 1.3 ICS [41] 2011
United Kingdom 1.6 0.5 SEBS [44] 2012
Europe (Region B) Ajerbaijan 0.3 0 DHS [40] 2006
Armenia 1.8 0 DHS [40] 2005
Bulgaria 0.3 0 SEBS [44] 2012
Georgia 1 0.2 ICS [41] 2010
Kyrgyzstan 7 0.3 ICS [41] 2006
Poland 1 0.1 GATS [42] 2009
Romania 0.4 0.2 GATS [42] 2011
Slovakia 3.9 0.7 SEBS [44] 2012
Uzbekistan 31.8 0.2 DHS [40] 2002
Europe (Region C) Latvia 5.8 0.9 ICS [41] 2010
Lithuania 1.2 0.2 SEBS [44] 2012
Moldova 0.1 0 DHS [40] 2005
Russia 1 0.2 GATS [42] 2009
Ukraine 0.5 0 GATS [42] 2010
South East Asia (Region B) Indonesia 1.5 2 GATS [42] 2011
Sri Lanka 24.9 6.9 STEPS [38] 2006
Thailand 1.1 5.2 GATS [42] 2011
South East Asia (Region D) Bangladesh 26.4 27.9 GATS [42] 2009
Bhutan 21.1 17.3 STEPS [38] 2007
India 32.9 18.4 GATS [42] 2009
Maldives 5.6 2.6 STEPS [38] 2011
Myanmar 51.4 16.1 STEPS [38] 2009
Nepal 37.9 6 DHS [41] 2011
Timor Leste 2.48 1.93 DHS [43] 2009–10
Western Pacific (Region A) Australia 0.75 0.41 ICS [45] 2004
Western Pacific (Region B) Cambodia 2.2 14.8 STEPS [38] 2010
China 0.7 0 GATS [42] 2010
Lao People’s Democratic Republic 14.6 1.1 STEPS [38] 2008
Malaysia 0.9 0.6 GATS [42] 2011
Micronesia 22.4 3 STEPS [38] 2002
Mongolia 2.8 0.5 STEPS [38] 2009
Philippines 2.8 1.2 GATS [42] 2009
Vietnam 0.3 2.3 GATS [42] 2010
  1. DHS The Demographic and Health Surveys, ICS Individual Country Survey, GATS Global Adult Tobacco Survey, SEBS The Special Europe Barometer Survey, STEPS STEPwise approach to Surveillance
  2. aPopulations of St Kitts and Nevis are tiny and unlikely to affect our estimates