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Table 2 Baseline characteristics

From: A randomised controlled trial of three or one breathing technique training sessions for breathlessness in people with malignant lung disease

  All participants Participants lost Remaining participants
Variable Three sessions Single session Total Three Single Three Single
N 52 104 156 9 23 43 81
Withdrew at baseline 2 2 4     
Age in years:        
mean (SD [MS] 68 (11) [0] 69 (9) [1] 69 (9) [1] 67 (8) [0] 68 (8) [1] 69 (11) [0] 70 (9) [0]
min, max 38, 87 47, 92 38, 92 53, 77 55, 83 38, 87 47, 92
Sex: N (%) [MS]        
Female 21 (43) [1] 39 (39) [2] 60 (40) [3] 1 (11) [0] 6 (29) [2] 21 (50) [1] 33 (41) [0]
Intrathoracic tumour: N (%) [0 MS] [2 MS] [2 MS] [0 MS] [2 MS] [0 MS] [0 MS]
Non-small cell 14 (28) 21 (21) 35 (23.3) 4 (44) 5 (24) 11 (26) 17 (21)
Small cell 1 (2) 4 (4) 5 (3.3)   2 (9) 1 (2) 2 (2)
Lung (histology not stated) 30 (60) 63 (63) 93 (62) 5(56) 13 (62) 26 (60) 51 (63)
Mesothelioma 4 (8) 8 (8) 12 (8)   1 (5) 4 (9) 7 (9)
Other 1 (2) 4 (4) 5 (3.3)    1 (2) 4 (5)
Metastases: N (%) [MS]        
Yes 9 (19) [2] 14 (16) [12] 23 (17) [14] 1 (14) [2] 5 (29) [6] 8 (19) [1] 9 (12) [6]
Preference: N (%) [0 MS] [1 MS] [1 MS] [0 MS] [1 MS] [0 MS] [0 MS]
High 14 (28) 20 (20) 34 (22.5) 1 (11) 3 (14) 13 (30) 17 (21)
Low 8 (16) 26 (26) 34 (22.5) 3 (33) 5 (23) 6 (14) 22 (27)
No preference 28 (56) 55 (54) 83 (55) 5 (56) 14 (64) 24 (56) 42 (52)
Smoking: N (%) [0 MS] [2 MS] [2 MS] [1 MS] [1 MS] [0 MS] [1 MS]
Never 6 (12) 7 (7) 13 (9)    6 (14) 7 (9)
Current 7 (14) 16 (16) 23 (15) 2 (25) 3 (14) 5 (12) 13 (16)
Ex-smoker 37 (74) 77 (77) 114 (76) 6 (75) 19 (86) 32 (74) 60 (75)
Karnofsky        
Mean (SD) [MS] 70.6 (9.0) [3] 70.6 (9.9) [7] 70.6 (9.5) [10] 62.5 (8.9) [1] 63.8 (13.2) [2] 71.7 (8.6) [2] 72.2 (7.9) [5]
Breathlessness scores NRS: mean (SD) [MS]        
Worst 6.7 (2.0) [6] 6.9 (1.9) [12] 6.8 (1.9) [18] 7.6 (1.8) [1] 7.4 (1.8) [3] 6.6 (2.0) [6] 6.7 (1.9) [10]
Average 5.4 (1.8) [6] 5.6 (1.6) [13] 5.5 (1.7) [19] 6.0 (1.3) [1] 6.6 (2.0) [3] 5.3 (1.9) [6] 5.3 (1.4) [11]
Distress 4.7 (2.8) [7] 4.6 (3.1) [12] 4.6 (3.0) [19] 4.5 (2.3) [1] 5.7 (3.0) [3] 4.7 (2.8) [7] 4.3 (3.1) [10]
Cope 6.4 (2.1) [6] 7.0 (2.1) [12] 6.8 (2.1) [18] 6.3 (2.4) [1] 6.3 (2.1) [3] 6.5 (2.0) [6] 7.2 (2.1) [10]
Care provided 6.3 (3.4) [9] 6.5 (3.4) [20] 6.5 (3.4) [29] 5.6 (2.8) [2] 6.0 (3.6) [4] 6.3 (3.6) [8] 6.8 (3.3) [17]
Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire – SAS: mean (SD) [MS]        
Dyspnoea domain 4.41 (1.25) [0] 4.38 (1.31) [1] 4.39 (1.30) [1] 3.95 (1.32) [1] 4.38 (1.43) [1] 4.50 (1.22) [0] 4.38 (1.27) [0]
Fatigue 3.02 (0.95) [0] 3.32 (1.11) [2] 3.22 (1.07) [2] 2.72 (0.81) [1] 2.94 (1.14) [2] 3.06 (0.97) [0] 3.41 (1.08) [0]
Emotional function 4.17 (1.10) [0] 4.50 (1.28) [2] 4.39 (1.23) [2] 3.54 (1.12) [1] 3.81 (1.38) [2] 4.26 (1.09) [0] 4.68 (1.17) [0]
Mastery 3.90 (1.19) [0] 4.48 (1.17) [2] 4.2 9 (1.20) [2] 2.94 (0.50) [1] 3.78 (1.35) [2] 4.06 (1.19) [0] 4.66 (1.03) [0]
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS): mean (SD) [MS]        
Anxiety 7.6 (4.3) [0] 6.1 (4.4) [4] 6.6 (4.3) [4] 8.5 (4.8) [1] 8.4 (5.0) [3] 7.6 (4.3) [0] 5.6 (3.7) [1]
Depression 6.6 (3.0) [0] 6.2 (3.9) [2] 6.3 (3.6) [2] 8.1 (2.2) [1] 7.9 (4.9) [2] 6.4 (3.1) [0] 5.8 (3.5) [0]
Big Five Inventory (BFI): [MS] mean (SD) [0] [4] [4] [1] [4] [0] [1]
Extraversion 3.06 (0.75) 3.30 (0.83) 3.22 (0.81) 3.11 (0.94) 3.00 (0.78) 3.05 (0.71) 3.37 (0.82)
Agreeableness 4.22 (0.53) 4.16 (0.64) 4.18 (0.60) 3.96 (0.65) 3.99 (0.91) 4.26 (0.49) 4.20 (0.55)
Conscientiousness 4.00 (0.64) 4.11 (0.61) 4.07 (0.62) 3.90 (0.60) 3.94 (0.69) 4.00 (0.66) 4.16 (0.59)
Neuroticism 2.64 (0.83) 2.51 (0.88) 2.55 (0.86) 3.01 (0.89) 2.93 (1.08) 2.60 (0.82) 2.40 (0.80)
Openness 3.32 (0.75) 3.30 (0.70) 3.31 (0.71) 3.09 (0.81) 3.11 (0.81) 3.34 (0.75) 3.34 (0.67)
Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ48): [MS] mean (SD) [1] [4] [5] [3] [5] [0] [0]
Challenge 3.7 (0.7) 3.8 (0.7) 3.78 (0.7) 3.7 (0.7) 3.7 (0.8) 3.7 (0.7) 3.8 (0.6)
Commitment 3.6 (0.7) 3.8 (0.6) 3.7 (0.6) 3.5 (0.7) 3.5 (0.8) 3.6 (0.7) 3.8 (0.6)
Control emotion 3.3 (0.6) 3.3 (0.6) 3.3 (0.6) 3.3 (0.4) 3.1 (0.8) 3.25 (0.7) 3.3 (0.6)
Control life 3.6 (0.7) 3.7 (0.7) 3.7 (0.7) 3.7 (0.9) 3.5 (0.8) 3.59 (0.7) 3.77 (0.6)
Confidence abilities 3.6 (0.6) 3.7 (0.6) 3.7 (0.6) 3.7 (0.5) 3.5 (0.8) 3.6 (0.6) 3.68 (0.6)
Confidence interpersonal 3.72 (0.82) 3.84 (0.75) 3.80 (0.77) 4.12 (0.99) 3.83 (0.66) 3.67 (0.79) 3.83 (0.78)
Pre-randomisation patient stated preference for study allocation: [MS] N (%) [0] [1] [1] [0] [1] [0] [0]
Three sessions 14 (28) 20 (20) 34 (22.5) 1 (11) 3 (14) 13 (30) 17 (21)
Single session 8 (16) 26 (26) 34 (22.5) 3 (33) 5 (23) 6 (14) 22 (27)
No preference 28 (56) 55 (54) 83 (55) 5 (56) 14 (64) 24 (56) 42 (52)
  1. **Adjusted for baseline breathlessness intensity, gender, smoking status, and age; Descriptive statistics of the primary and secondary breathlessness outcome measures, P values and unadjusted and adjusted confidence intervals for the difference between the two arms
  2. N = number SAS, Self-administered survey (supported by research nurse); SD, Standard deviation; AUC, Area under the curve. MS = Missing