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Table 1 Definition of indicators

From: Benchmarking health system performance across regions in Uganda: a systematic analysis of levels and trends in key maternal and child health interventions, 1990–2011

Indicator Definition Data sources
Health outcomes
Under-5 mortality The probability that a child born in the given year will die before reaching the age of 5 years, expressed in terms of under-5 deaths per 1,000 live births DHS: 1995, 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
AIS: 2011
Census: 1991, 2002
Percentage of children under 5 who are underweight The proportion of children aged 6–59 months who are underweight, as defined by weighing two or more standard deviations below the international anthropometric reference population median of weight for age DHS: 1995, 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
IHS: 1992–1993
UNHS: 1999–2000
UNPS: 2009–2010, 2010–2011
Prevalence of stunting among children under 5 The proportion of children aged 6–59 months who are stunted, as defined by weighing two or more standard deviations below the international anthropometric reference population median of height for age DHS: 1995, 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
IHS: 1992–1993
UNHS: 1999–2000
UNPS: 2009–2010, 2010–2011
Malaria interventions
Insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership The proportion of households that owned at least one ITN DHS: 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
MIS: 2009–2010
Netmark: 2000, 2006
ITN use by children under 5 The proportion of children under 5 who slept under an ITN during the night before the survey DHS: 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
MIS: 2009–2010
Netmark: 2000, 2006
UNHS: 2005–2006, 2009–2010
Indoor residual spraying (IRS) The proportion of households that were sprayed with an insecticide-based solution in the last 12 months DHS: 2006, 2011
MIS: 2009–2010
ITN ownership or IRS The proportion of households that owned at least one ITN or were sprayed with an insecticide-based solution in the last 12 months, or both DHS: 2006, 2011
MIS: 2009–2010
ITN use or IRS The proportion of children under 5 who slept under an ITN during the night before the survey, or lived in a household that received IRS in the last 12 months, or both DHS: 2006, 2011
MIS: 2009–2010
Percentage of febrile children under 5 who received artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) The proportion of children under 5 with a fever in the last two weeks who received ACTs DHS: 2006, 2011
MIS: 2009–2010
Percentage of antimalarials provided that were ACTs The proportion of malaria treatments that were ACTs and given to children under 5 with fever in the last two weeks DHS: 2006, 2011
MIS: 2009–2010
Childhood immunizations
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunization (BCG, 0–12; BCG, u5) The proportion of children (1) aged 0–12 months or (2) aged under 5 who were vaccinated against tuberculosis DHS: 1995, 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
IHS: 1992–1993
UNHS: 1999–2000
UNSDS: 2004, 2008
Measles immunization The proportion of children aged 12–24 months who received measles vaccination DHS: 1995, 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
IHS: 1992–1993
UNHS: 1999–2000
UNPS: 2009–2010, 2010–2011
UNSDS: 2004, 2008
Oral polio immunization, three doses (OPV3) The proportion of children aged 12–59 months who received three doses of OPV DHS: 1995, 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
IHS: 1992–1993
UNHS: 1999–2000
UNSDS: 2004, 2008
Pentavalent immunization The proportion of children aged 12–59 months who received three doses of the pentavalent vaccine, which includes protection against diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenzae type b DHS: 2006, 2011
UNSDS: 2004, 2008
Other key MCH interventions
Antenatal care, one and four visits (ANC1 and ANC4) The proportion of women aged 15–49 who gave birth in the given year and had one/four or more antenatal visits attended by skilled personnel (doctor, nurse, midwife, or clinical officer) at a health facility during the corresponding pregnancy DHS: 1995, 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
MIS: 2009–2010
AIS: 2011
IHS: 1992–1993
UNHS: 1999–2000
Percentage of women who received two or more doses of the tetanus toxoid vaccine during pregnancy The proportion of women aged 15–49 who received two or more doses of the tetanus toxoid vaccine during their last pregnancy DHS: 1995, 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
UNHS: 1999–2000
Skilled birth attendance The proportion of women 15–49 who gave birth in the given year and delivered with a skilled birth attendant (a doctor, nurse, midwife, or clinical officer) DHS: 1995, 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
UNHS: 1999–2000
Exclusive breastfeeding The proportion of children aged 0–5 months who consumed only breast milk the night before the survey DHS: 1995, 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
Receipt of oral rehydration salts in response to diarrhea (ORS) The proportion of children under 5 who had diarrhea in the past two weeks and who received ORS DHS: 1995, 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
Care at health facility after suspected acute respiratory infection The proportion children under 5 who had a cough and difficulty breathing or a fever in the past 2 weeks, and for whom treatment was sought at a health facility or from a health provider DHS: 1995, 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
Socioeconomic factors
Household electricity The proportion of households with functional electricity Census: 1991, 2002
DHS: 1995, 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
MIS: 2009–2010
AIS: 2011
UNPS:2010–2011
Female headship of households The proportion of households with a female head of household Census: 1991, 2002
DHS: 1995, 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
MIS: 2009–2010
AIS: 2011
IHS: 1992–1993
UNHS: 1999–2000, 2002–2003, 2005–2006, 2009–2010
UNPS: 2009–2010, 2010–2011
UNSDS: 2004, 2008
Household size The mean number of members per household Census: 1991, 2002
DHS: 1995, 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
MIS: 2009–2010
AIS: 2011
IHS: 1992–1993
UNHS: 1999–2000, 2002–2003, 2005–2006, 2009–2010
UNPS: 2009–2010, 2010–2011
UNSDS: 2004, 2008
Educational attainment of women aged 15–44 The mean years of schooling for women aged 15–44 Census: 1991, 2002
DHS: 1995, 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
MIS: 2009–2010
AIS: 2011
IHS: 1992–1993
UNHS: 1999–2000, 2002–2003, 2005–2006, 2009–2010
UNPS: 2009–2010, 2010–2011
UNSDS: 2004, 2008
Improved dwelling wall type The proportion of households with dwelling walls constructed with an improved material DHS: 1995, 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
MIS: 2009–2010
AIS: 2011
UNHS: 1999–2000, 2002–2003, 2005–2006, 2009–2010
UNPS: 2009–2010, 2010–2011
UNSDS: 2004, 2008
Improved sanitation The proportion of households with improved sanitation DHS: 2006, 2011
MIS: 2009–2010
UNHS: 1999–2000, 2002–2003, 2005–2006, 2009–2010
UNPS: 2009–2010, 2010–2011
UNSDS: 2004, 2008
Improved water source The proportion of households using an improved water source DHS: 1995, 2000–2001, 2006, 2011
MIS: 2009–2010
AIS: 2011
UNHS: 1999–2000, 2002–2003, 2005–2006, 2009–2010
UNPS: 2009–2010, 2010–2011
UNSDS: 2004, 2008
  1. DHS Demographic and Health Survey, MIS Malaria Indicator Survey, AIS AIDS Indicator Survey, Netmark Netmark Survey, IHS Integrated Household Survey, UNHS Uganda National Household Survey, UNPS Uganda National Panel Survey, UNSDS Uganda National Service Delivery Survey, Census National Population Census