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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants by cohort and case status (death during follow-up) and number of cases for cause-specific mortality analyses by cohort

From: Evidence for the free radical/oxidative stress theory of ageing from the CHANCES consortium: a meta-analysis of individual participant data

Baseline characteristics HAPIEE Poland HAPIEE Czech Republic HAPIEE Lithuania ESTHER Germany
Cases (Deaths) Eligible controls Cases (Deaths) Eligible controls Cases (Deaths) Eligible controls Cases (Deaths) Controls
Total sample size 525 1498 518 1776 390 1278 269 3,758
Age (years) 62.9 (56.7; 67.0)* 62.1 (55.8; 66.5) 63.6 (58.6; 67.4) 63.0 (57.9; 66.8) 66.5 (61.1; 70.3) 66.1 (60.5; 70.1) 74.1 (70.0; 78.1)* 69.2 (64.3; 74.0)
 45 to <60 190 (36.2) 594 (39.7) 154 (29.7) 559 (31.5) 79 (20.3) 292 (22.9) 10 (3.7)* 345 (9.2)
 60 to <65 126 (24.0) 355 (23.7) 144 (27.8) 518 (29.2) 83 (21.3) 265 (20.7) 18 (6.9)* 681 (18.1)
 65 to <70 198 (37.7) 507 (33.9) 198 (38.2) 634 (35.7) 124 (31.8) 391 (30.6) 42 (15.6)* 1020 (27.1)
 70 to <85 11 (2.1) 42 (2.8) 22 (4.3) 65 (3.7) 104 (26.7) 330 (25.8) 199 (74.0)* 1712 (45.6)
Male sex 357 (68.0) 1015 (67.8) 339 (65.4) 1170 (65.9) 261 (66.9) 830 (65.0) 158 (58.7)* 1636 (43.5)
Education
 Low 90 (17.2)* 168 (11.2) 90 (17.5)* 175 (10.0) 68 (17.8)* 130 (10.3) 192 (73.3) 2633 (71.1)
 Medium 322 (61.5)* 842 (56.2) 377 (73.5)* 1296 (73.7) 181 (47.4)* 463 (36.6) 59 (22.5) 852 (23.0)
 High 112 (21.4)* 488 (32.5) 46 (9.0)* 287 (16.3) 133 (34.8)* 672 (53.1) 11 (4.2) 218 (5.9)
BMI (kg/m2) 27.4 (24.5; 30.9) 27.9 (25.1; 30.7) 28.7 (25.7; 32.0)* 28.0 (25.5; 30.9) 28.5 (25.4; 32.8) 29.0 (25.7; 32.1) 28.3 (24.9; 31.2) 27.8 (25.1; 30.9)
 <20 13 (2.5) 24 (1.6) 10 (1.9)* 20 (1.1) 11 (2.8)* 10 (0.8) 5 (2.0) 47 (1.3)
 20 to <25 130 (24.9) 330 (22.1) 92 (17.8)* 344 (19.4) 74 (19.0)* 236 (18.5) 60 (23.4) 857 (23.2)
 25 to <30 222 (42.5) 682 (45.6) 207 (40.0)* 827 (46.6) 154 (39.5)* 516 (40.4) 112 (43.6) 1625 (44.0)
 30 to <35 110 (21.1) 362 (24.2) 149 (28.8)* 450 (25.4) 98 (25.1)* 369 (28.9) 52 (20.2) 859 (23.3)
 ≥35 47 (9.0) 98 (6.6) 60 (11.6)* 134 (7.6) 53 (13.6)* 147 (11.5) 28 (10.9) 304 (8.2)
Smoking
 Never 124 (23.8)* 598 (40.0) 140 (27.5)* 761 (43.6) 176 (46.2) * 742 (58.7) 100 (38.8)* 2119 (57.3)
 Former 175 (33.5)* 510 (34.1) 192 (37.6)* 598 (34.3) 99 (26.0) * 295 (23.3) 123 (47.7)* 1310 (35.4)
 Current 223 (42.7)* 386 (25.8) 178 (34.9)* 386 (22.1) 106 (27.8) * 227 (18.0) 35 (13.6)* 271 (7.3)
Alcohol consumption (g/day) 0 (0; 11.4)* 0 (0; 25.4) 11.4 (2.7; 31.9)* 14.3 (5.7; 30.3) 0 (0; 8) 1.4 (0; 10.3) 3.4 (0; 13.5)* 6.7 (0; 14.4)
Vigorous physical activity 331 (67.8)* 1078 (75.4) 298 (60.8)* 1295 (74.7) 176 (46.4)* 742 (58.7) 87 (41.6)* 2067 (62.4)
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 218 (192; 251) 219 (195; 247) 213 (186; 239)* 218 (194; 247) 220 (190; 251)* 225 (200; 255) 211 (180; 249)* 233 (202; 265)
 <200 180 (34.3) 443 (29.7) 206 (39.9)* 550 (31.0) 124 (31.8)* 323 (25.4) 102 (38.1)* 868 (23.1)
 200 to <280 297 (56.6) 930 (62.1) 272 (52.6)* 1088 (61.3) 230 (59.0)* 801 (62.9) 135 (50.4)* 2278 (60.7)
 ≥280 48 (9.1) 125 (8.3) 39 (7.5)* 138 (7.8) 36 (9.2)* 149 (11.7) 31 (11.6)* 609 (16.2)
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 51 (42; 61)* 52 (44; 61) 48 (40; 58)* 49 (41; 60) 53 (43; 63)* 54 (46; 65) 54 (45; 64)* 59 (49; 70)
 <40 97 (18.5)* 187 (12.5) 132 (25.5) 369 (20.9) 72 (19.0)* 133 (10.6) 38 (14.2)* 221 (5.9)
 40 to <80 392 (74.7)* 1237 (82.6) 359 (69.4) 1313 (74.3) 280 (73.7)* 1024 (81.7) 207 (77.2)* 3098 (82.5)
 ≥80 36 (6.9)* 74 (4.9) 26 (5.0) 86 (4.9) 28 (7.4)* 96 (7.7) 23 (8.6)* 436 (11.6)
CRP (mg/L) 2.6 (1.1; 5.6)* 1.7 (0.8; 3.1) 2.7 (1.12; 5.6)* 1.9 (0.9; 3.6) 2.7 (1.2; 5.6)* 1.6 (0.8; 3.2) 2.8 (1.3; 6.2)* 1.8 (0.9; 3.7)
 ≤3 294 (56.0)* 1100 (73.4) 281 (54.3)* 1218 (68.6) 214 (54.9)* 931 (72.9) 143 (53.2)* 2567 (68.3)
 >3 to ≤10 165 (31.4)* 328 (21.9) 185 (35.7)* 474 (26.7) 125 (32.1)* 276 (21.6) 96 (35.7)* 967 (25.7)
 >10 66 (12.6)* 70 (4.7) 52 (10.0)* 84 (4.7) 51 (13.1)* 71 (5.6) 30 (11.2)* 224 (6.0)
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 89.2 (76.1; 97.5) 88.6 (77.7; 95.7) 78.2 (64.9; 90.4)* 80.1 (69.3; 90.6) 85.0 (70.0; 93.4) 86.5 (74.1; 94.2) 63.9 (51.8; 76.9)* 71.8 (62.7; 80.7)
 ≥60 487 (92.7)* 1440 (96.1) 426 (82.2)* 1600 (90.1) 336 (86.2)* 1184 (92.6) 163 (60.6)* 3001 (80.0)
 <60 38 (7.2)* 58 (3.9) 92 (17.8)* 176 (9.9) 54 (13.9)* 94 (7.4) 106 (39.4)* 757 (20.1)
History of hypertension 323 (61.9)* 837 (55.9) 300 (58.6)* 902 (50.9) 248 (65.1) 788 (62.4) 221 (82.2)* 2637 (70.2)
History of diabetes 111 (21.2)* 207 (13.8) 123 (24.0)* 243 (13.7) 56 (14.7)* 91 (7.2) 108 (40.2)* 892 (23.7)
History of MI 110 (21.1)* 147 (9.9) 69 (14.1)* 104 (6.1) 71 (18.6)* 121 (9.6) 50 (18.6)* 217 (5.8)
History of stroke 31 (6.0)* 33 (2.2) 40 (8.2)* 59 (3.5) 35 (9.2)* 68 (5.4) 46 (17.1)* 262 (7.0)
History of cancer 52 (9.9)* 67 (4.5) 53 (10.2)* 93 (5.2) 58 (14.9)* 104 (8.1) 94 (34.9)* 428 (11.4)
d-ROMs (Carr U) 368 (324; 425)* 349 (309; 394) 404 (350; 470)* 381 (335; 439) 372 (330; 421)* 356 (317; 393) 369 (320; 406)* 350 (305; 395)
 ≤340 178 (33.9)* 650 (43.4) 102 (19.7)* 483 (27.2) 123 (31.5)* 498 (39.0) 96 (35.7)* 1649 (43.9)
 341–400 167 (31.8)* 514 (34.1) 146 (28.2)* 564 (31.8) 138 (35.4)* 500 (39.1) 94 (34.9)* 1250 (33.3)
 401–500 143 (27.2)* 314 (21.0) 185 (35.7)* 561 (31.6) 101 (25.9)* 258 (20.2) 70 (26.0)* 789 (21.0)
 >500 37 (7.0)* 20 (1.3) 85 (16.4)* 168 (9.5) 28 (7.2)* 22 (1.7) 9 (3.3)* 70 (1.9)
TTL (μmol/L) 509 (445; 566)* 518 (464; 570) 406 (363; 452) 411 (371; 450) 313 (273; 357)* 321 (283; 359) 303 (239; 356) * 335 (284; 383)
Cause of death
 CVD 165 (32.0) n.a. 189 (36.6) n.a. 155 (39.7) n.a. 51 (31.7) n.a.
 Cancer 235 (45.5) n.a. 235 (45.5) n.a. 158 (40.5) n.a. 74 (46.0) n.a.
 Non-CVD, non-cancer 116 (22.5) n.a. 93 (18.0) n.a. 77 (19.7) n.a. 36 (22.4) n.a.
 Unknown 9 (n.a.) n.a. 1 (n.a.) n.a. 0 (n.a.) n.a. 108 (n.a.)a n.a.
  1. Unless indicated otherwise, the table shows proportions (%) for categorical and medians (25th; 75th percentile) for continuous variables. Numbers shown were drawn from the not imputed data set. Therefore, numbers do not always add up to the total because of missing values (see Additional file 1: Table S1 for proportion of missing values for each variable)
  2. *Statistically significant (P <0.05) difference among cases and controls assessed by χ2 test for categorical and Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables
  3. BMI, Body mass index; CRP, C-reactive protein; CVD, Cardiovascular disease; d-ROMs, Derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites; eGFR, Estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL, High-density lipoprotein; MI, Myocardial infarction; n.a., Not applicable; TTL, Total thiol levels
  4. aInformation on cause of death is released by German authorities later than general mortality information. At the time of the analysis, information about all-cause mortality was available until July 31, 2014, and information about causes of deaths for deaths that occurred until April 2, 2013