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Table 5 Association of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) levels and total thiol levels (TTL) with all-cause and disease specific mortality stratified by cohort/country, sex, age, history of myocardial infarction, history of cancer, inflammatory status and time-point of event during follow-up

From: Evidence for the free radical/oxidative stress theory of ageing from the CHANCES consortium: a meta-analysis of individual participant data

Outcome Stratum ncases Increase of d-ROMs by 1 SDa Decrease of TTL by 1 SDb
RR (95 % CI)c RR (95 % CI)c
Stratified by cohort/country
All-cause mortality HAPIEE Poland 525 1.29 (1.14–1.46)* 1.14 (1.01–1.28)*
HAPIEE Czech Republic 518 1.33 (1.17–1.51)* 1.05 (0.93–1.19)
HAPIEE Lithuania 390 1.47 (1.25–1.71)* 1.31 (1.10–1.57)*
ESTHER (Germany) 269 1.33 (1.18–1.49)* 1.31 (1.15–1.48)*
CVD mortality HAPIEE Poland 165 1.54 (1.21–1.95)* 1.22 (0.98–1.53)
HAPIEE Czech Republic 189 1.56 (1.22–2.00)* 1.25 (0.99–1.56)
HAPIEE Lithuania 155 1.40 (1.06–1.85)* 1.48 (1.06–2.06)*
ESTHER (Germany) 51 1.24 (0.94–1.63) 1.39 (1.06–1.84)*
Cancer mortality HAPIEE Poland 235 1.17 (0.98–1.41) 1.06 (0.89–1.26)
HAPIEE Czech Republic 235 1.36 (1.13–1.63)* 0.95 (0.79–1.14)
HAPIEE Lithuania 158 1.60 (1.25–2.04)* 1.18 (0.89–1.55)
ESTHER (Germany) 74 1.40 (1.13–1.74)* 1.21 (0.96–1.53)
Stratified by age
All-cause mortality 45 to <60 yearsd 423 1.23 (1.04–1.45)* 1.16 (1.01–1.34)*
60 to <70 years 933 1.39 (1.27–1.53)* 1.16 (1.05–1.29)*
70 to <85 yearse, f 303 1.33 (1.17–1.52)* 1.35 (1.18–1.55)*
CVD mortality 45 to <60 yearsd 126 1.42 (1.01–2.00)* 1.24 (0.91–1.69)
60 to <70 yearsd 322 1.64 (1.35–2.00)* 1.31 (1.09–1.56)*
70 to <85 yearse, f 90 1.28 (0.97–1.69) 1.65 (1.22–2.24)*
Cancer mortality 45 to <60 yearsd 177 1.21 (0.81–1.81) 1.20 (0.96–1.50)
60 to <70 yearsd 392 1.41 (1.21–1.64)* 1.02 (0.86–1.21)
70 to <85 yearse, f 94 1.46 (1.13–1.87)* 1.17 (0.89–1.52)
Stratified by sex
All-cause mortality Women 587 1.28 (1.13–1.44)* 1.25 (1.05–1.50)*
Men 1115 1.40 (1.29–1.53)* 1.18 (1.08–1.28)*
CVD mortality Womend 157 1.42 (1.08–1.87)* 1.28 (0.98–1.69)
Men 385 1.50 (1.27–1.76)* 1.33 (1.13–1.56)*
Cancer mortality Women 257 1.31 (1.05–1.65)* 1.16 (0.96–1.40)
Men 445 1.39 (1.21–1.59)* 1.06 (0.93–1.21)
Stratified by history of MI
All-cause mortality No history of MI 1286 1.33 (1.22–1.41)* 1.17 (1.04–2.61)*
History of MIg 375 1.39 (1.17;1.65 )* 1.19 (0.97–1.63)
CVD mortality No history of MI 379 1.35 (1.14–1.57)* 1.22 (1.04–1.43)*
History of MId, g 165 1.45 (1.04–2.02)* 1.19 (0.88–1.61)
Stratified by history of cancer
All-cause mortality No history of cancer 1382 1.32 (1.23–1.42)* 1.16 (1.05–1.29)*
History of cancerg 257 1.49 (1.24–1.77)* 1.24 (1.00–1.54)*
Cancer mortality No history of cancer 533 1.29 (1.15–1.45)* 1.01 (0.89–1.14)
History of cancerg 169 1.53 (1.19–1.97)* 1.16 (0.91–1.47)
Stratified by inflammatory status
All-cause mortality CRP ≤3 mg/L 933 1.19 (1.08–1.31)* 1.12 (0.97–1.30)
CRP >3 mg/L 769 1.26 (1.15–1.38)* 1.16 (1.05–1.28)*
CVD mortality CRP ≤3 mg/Ld 265 1.26 (1.00–1.58)* 1.10 (0.90–1.35)
CRP >3 mg/L 275 1.28 (1.07–1.54)* 1.22 (1.01–1.48)*
Cancer mortality CRP ≤3 mg/L 394 1.22 (1.04–1.43)* 1.06 (0.90–1.26)
CRP >3 mg/L 308 1.27 (1.10–1.46)* 1.07 (0.91–1.26)
Stratified by time-point of event during follow-up
All-cause mortality ≤ year 2 419 1.46 (1.29–1.66)* 1.29 (1.11–1.50)*
> year 2 to ≤ year 4 597 1.31 (1.17–1.46)* 1.18 (1.06–1.33)*
> year 4 to ≤ year 6 433 1.25 (1.09–1.43)* 1.17 (1.02–1.33)*
  1. *Statistically significant (P <0.05)
  2. a1 SD of d-ROMs levels equal to 81.1, 89.6, 70.5, and 71.9 Carr U in the HAPIEE Poland, Czech Republic, Lithuania, and ESTHER study, respectively
  3. b1 SD of TTL equals 79.5, 69.1, 74.1, and 75.3 μmol/L in the HAPIEE Poland, Czech Republic, Lithuania, and ESTHER study, respectively
  4. cMeta-analysis of HAPIEE Poland, Czech Republic, Lithuania, and ESTHER study if not stated otherwise. Model controlled for age, sex, education, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, vigorous physical activity, and the other oxidative stress marker (i.e. TTL or d-ROMs)
  5. dMeta-analyses without the ESTHER study because too few events (<25) were observed in this category in this study
  6. eMeta-analyses without the HAPIEE Poland study because too few events (<25) were observed in this category in this study
  7. f Meta-analyses without the HAPIEE Czech Republic study because too few events (<25) were observed in this category in this study
  8. gOne instead of two matched controls due to a shortage of potential controls in this category in the HAPIEE cohorts
  9. CVD, Cardiovascular disease; CI, Confidence interval; CRP, C-reactive protein; MI, Myocardial infarction; ncases, Incident case numbers; RR, Risk ratio; SD, Standard deviation