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Table 3 Direct non-medical and indirect costs and time inputs

From: Cost and quality of life analysis of HIV self-testing and facility-based HIV testing and counselling in Blantyre, Malawi

  Intervention clusters Control clusters Mean differences (95 % CI)c
HIVST (n = 775) Facility HTC (n = 253) Facility HTC (n = 213) HIVST V All Facility HTC Intervention Facility HTC v Control Facility HTC
Patient direct non-medical costs      
2014 US Dollars (mean/SE) 0 (0, 0)a 0 . 90 (0 . 09) 0 . 78 (0 . 06) -0 . 84 (-0 . 95, -0 . 73) 0 . 12 (-0 . 10, 0 . 33)
2014 INT Dollars (mean/SE) 0 (0, 0)a 2 . 49 (0 . 25) 2 . 17 (0 . 16) -2 . 32 (-2 . 63, -2 . 01) 0 . 32 (-0 . 28, 0 . 92)
Time to get tested (mean/SE)b 30 . 2 (1 . 8) 215 . 2 (7 . 0) 196 . 5 (6 . 9) -176 . 5 (-186 . 9, -166 . 1) 18 . 7 (-0 . 9, 38 . 3)
Patient time off work Yes 13 (1 . 7 %) 63 (24 . 9 %) 61 (28 . 6 %) - -
Indirect costs      
2014 US Dollars (mean/SE) 0 (0, 0)a 1 . 07 (0 . 24) 1 . 93 (0 . 56) -1 . 41 (-1 . 96, -0 . 86) -0 . 87 (-2 . 11, 0 . 38)
2014 INT Dollars (mean/SE) 0 (0, 0)a 2 . 97 (0 . 67) 5 . 37 (1 . 55) -3 . 91 (-5 . 44, -2 . 38) -2 . 41 (-5 . 87, 1 . 05)
Family or carer accompanied Yes 13 (1 . 7 %) 65 (25 . 7 %) 61 (28 . 6 %) - -
Family/carer direct non-medical costs      
2014 US Dollars (mean/SE) 0 (0, 0)a 0 . 24 (0 . 04) 0 . 26 (0 . 04) -0 . 25 (-0 . 31, -0 . 19) -0 . 02 (-0 . 13, 0 . 10)
2014 INT Dollars (mean/SE) 0 (0, 0)a 0 . 68 (0 . 11) 0 . 72 (0 . 11) -0 . 70 (-0 . 86, -0 . 54) -0 . 04 (-0 . 36, 0 . 27)
Family/carer time to accompany to test (mean/SE)b 0 (0, 0)a 54 . 3 (6 . 8) 51 . 8 (6 . 4) -52 . 4 (-43 . 3, -61 . 5) 2 . 5 (-16 . 5, 21 . 5)
Family/carer loss of income      
2014 US Dollars (mean/SE) 0 (0, 0)a 0 . 03 (0 . 02) 1 . 29 (0 . 95) -0 . 59 (-1 . 43, 0 . 25) -1 . 25 (-3 . 16, 0 . 65)
2014 INT Dollars (mean/SE) 0 (0, 0)a 0 . 09 (0 . 05) 3 . 57 (2 . 65) -1 . 64 (-3 . 97, 0 . 69) -3 . 48 (-8 . 70, 1 . 72)
Total direct non-medical and indirect costs      
2014 US Dollars (mean/SE) 0 (0, 0)a 2 . 22 (0 . 27) 3 . 91 (1 . 09) -2 . 93 (-3 . 94, -1 . 92) -1 . 69 (-3 . 88, 0 . 51)
2014 INT Dollars (mean/SE) 0 (0, 0)a 6 . 18 (0 . 74) 10 . 87 (3 . 02) -8 . 14 (-10 . 94, -5 . 35) -4 . 69 (-10 . 73, 1 . 36)
  1. SE standard error
  2. aMedian and IQR reported because of low numbers incurring costs/taking time off work
  3. bTime measured in minutes and includes travel to and from testing site, waiting time and counselling and testing time
  4. cBootstrapped estimates of mean differences and 95 % CI