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Table 5 Health-related quality of life of HIV testers

From: Cost and quality of life analysis of HIV self-testing and facility-based HIV testing and counselling in Blantyre, Malawi

  Intervention clusters Control clusters HIVST v Intervention Facility HTC v Control Facility HTC
All Facility HTC
HIVST (n = 775) Facility HTC (n = 253) Facility HTC (n = 213) p-value p-value
HIV test result (n/%) HIV negative 670 (86 . 5 %) 146 (57 . 7 %) 115 (54 . 0 %)   0 . 421
HIV positive 104 (13 . 4 %) 107 (42 . 3 %) 98 (46 . 0 %) <0 . 001
Not reported 1 (0 . 1 %) 0 (0 %) 0 (0 %)  
EQ-5D: Utility score (mean/SE) All 0 . 905 (0 . 897, 0 . 913) 0 . 828 (0 . 812, 0 . 844) 0 . 839 (0 . 821, 0 . 857) <0 . 001 0 . 359
HIV negative 0 . 916 (0 . 908, 0 . 924) 0 . 853 (0 . 834, 0 . 873) 0 . 862 (0 . 839, 0 . 884) <0 . 001 0 . 591
HIV positive 0 . 842 (0 . 814, 0 . 870) 0 . 794 (0 . 768, 0 . 819) 0 . 813 (0 . 786, 0 . 840) 0 . 022 0 . 306
EQ-5D: VAS score (mean/SE) All 82 . 1 (81 . 0, 83 . 3) 74 . 5 (72 . 2, 76 . 8) 75 . 4 (72 . 9, 78 . 0) <0 . 001 0 . 597
HIV negative 83 . 7 (82 . 5, 84 . 9) 79 . 4 (76 . 6, 82 . 2) 79 . 5 (76 . 0, 82 . 9) <0 . 001 0 . 966
HIV positive 72 . 5 (69 . 0, 76 . 0) 67 . 9 (64 . 4, 71 . 3) 70 . 7 (67 . 0, 74 . 4) 0 . 135 0 . 270
EQ-5D: Mobility (n/%) Moderate or severe problems HIV negative 61 (9 . 1 %) 34 (23 . 3 %) 17 (14 . 8 %) <0 . 001 0 . 085
HIV positive 23 (22 . 3 %) 40 (37 . 0 %) 33 (34 . 0 %) 0 . 018 0 . 652
EQ-5D: Self-care (n/%) Moderate or severe problems HIV negative 5 (0 . 7 %) 2 (1 . 4 %) 1 (0 . 9 %) 0 . 551 0 . 707
HIV positive 3 (2 . 9 %) 6 (5 . 6 %) 1 (1 . 0 %) 0 . 815 0 . 075
EQ-5D: Usual activities (n/%) Moderate or severe problems HIV negative 25 (3 . 7 %) 19 (13 . 0 %) 13 (11 . 3 %) <0 . 001 0 . 676
HIV positive 19 (18 . 4 %) 26 (24 . 1 %) 25 (25 . 8 %) 0 . 204 0 . 779
EQ-5D: Pain (n/%) Moderate or severe problems HIV negative 159 (23 . 8 %) 55 (37 . 7 %) 50 (43 . 5 %) <0 . 001 0 . 342
HIV positive 50 (48 . 5 %) 68 (63 . 0 %) 50 (51 . 5 %) 0 . 134 0 . 099
EQ-5D: Anxiety (n/%) Moderate or severe problems HIV negative 212 (31 . 7 %) 71 (48 . 6 %) 49 (42 . 6 %) <0 . 001 0 . 333
HIV positive 44 (42 . 7 %) 57 (52 . 8 %) 53 (54 . 6 %) 0 . 070 0 . 790
Self-assessed health (n/%) Poor or very poor HIV negative 6 (0 . 9 %) 6 (4 . 1 %) 5 (4 . 3 %) 0 . 001 0 . 924
Poor or very poor HIV positive 5 (4 . 9 %) 13 (12 . 0 %) 9 (9 . 3 %) 0 . 085 0 . 524