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Table 2 Outcomes from key clinical trials of combination immunotherapies (adapted from [97])

From: Cancer immunotherapy: the beginning of the end of cancer?

Agents Indication Regimen or design n Overall response (CR and PR) Survival Refs
Ipilimumab and nivolumab Advanced-stage untreated melanoma Nivolumab or ipilimumab alone versus nivolumab plus ipilimumab 945 -44 % nivolumab
-19 % ipilimumab
-58 % ipilimumab plus nivolumab
Median PFS:
-2.9 months for ipilimumab*
-6.9 months for nivolumab
-11.5 months for nivolumab plus ipilimumab*,†
[98]
Ipilimumab and nivolumab Advanced-stage melanoma Concurrent or sequential combination with dose escalation 53 42 %
(concurrent combination)
OS rate:
-85 % 1-year
-79 % 2-year
[146]
Ipilimumab and nivolumab Advanced-stage untreated melanoma Ipilimumab alone versus Ipilimumab plus nivolumab 142 -11 % ipilimumab*
-61 % ipilimumab plus nivolumab*
Median PFS:
-4.4 months for ipilimumab
-Not reached for ipilimumab plus nivolumab
[147]
Ipilimumab and GP100 vaccine Previously treated advanced-stage melanoma Ipilimumab or vaccine alone versus ipilimumab plus vaccine 676 -10.9 % ipilimumab alone*
-1.5 % vaccine alone
-5.7 % ipilimumab with vaccine*,†
Median OS:
-10.1 months for ipilimumab alone
-6.4 months for vaccine alone*
-10.0 months for ipilimumab plus vaccine*
[13]
Ipilimumab and dacarbazine Advanced-stage
untreated
melanoma
Dacarbazine alone versus Ipilimumab plus dacarbazine 502 -10.3 % dacarbazine alone
-15.2 % ipilimumab with dacarbazine
Median OS:
-9.1 months for dacarbazine alone*
-11.2 months for ipilimumab plus dacarbazine*
[79]
Ipilimumab and radiotherapy Post-docetaxel CRPC Radiotherapy followed by placebo versus
radiotherapy followed by ipilimumab
799 NA Median OS:
-10.0 months for radiotherapy followed by placebo
-11.2 months for radiotherapy followed by ipilimumab
[149]
Carboplatin plus paclitaxel with placebo or ipilimumab NSCLC Placebo control versus phased or concurrent schedule 204 -18 % chemotherapy control
-32 % irBORR ipilimumab
Median irPFS:
-4.6 months chemotherapy control*
-5.7 months for phased ipilimumab*
[150]
Carboplatin plus paclitaxel with placebo or ipilimumab ED-SCLC Placebo control versus phased or concurrent schedule 130 -53 % chemotherapy control
-71 % irBORR ipilimumab
Median irPFS:
-5.3 months chemotherapy control*
-6.4 months for phased ipilimumab*
[151]
  1. The difference between pairs of outcomes marked by either * or † reached statistical significance
  2. CR, Complete response; CRPC, Castrate-resistant prostate cancer; ED-SCLC; Extensive-disease small cell lung cancer; irBORR, Immune-related best overall response rate; irPFS, Immune-related progression-free survival; NA, Not available or not presented; NSCLC, Non-small-cell lung cancer; OS, Overall survival; PR, Partial response