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Table 2 Outcomes from key clinical trials of combination immunotherapies (adapted from [97])

From: Cancer immunotherapy: the beginning of the end of cancer?

Agents Indication Regimen or design n Overall response (CR and PR) Survival Refs
Ipilimumab and nivolumab Advanced-stage untreated melanoma Nivolumab or ipilimumab alone versus nivolumab plus ipilimumab 945 -44 % nivolumab -19 % ipilimumab -58 % ipilimumab plus nivolumab Median PFS: -2.9 months for ipilimumab* -6.9 months for nivolumab -11.5 months for nivolumab plus ipilimumab*,† [98]
Ipilimumab and nivolumab Advanced-stage melanoma Concurrent or sequential combination with dose escalation 53 42 % (concurrent combination) OS rate: -85 % 1-year -79 % 2-year [146]
Ipilimumab and nivolumab Advanced-stage untreated melanoma Ipilimumab alone versus Ipilimumab plus nivolumab 142 -11 % ipilimumab* -61 % ipilimumab plus nivolumab* Median PFS: -4.4 months for ipilimumab -Not reached for ipilimumab plus nivolumab [147]
Ipilimumab and GP100 vaccine Previously treated advanced-stage melanoma Ipilimumab or vaccine alone versus ipilimumab plus vaccine 676 -10.9 % ipilimumab alone* -1.5 % vaccine alone -5.7 % ipilimumab with vaccine*,† Median OS: -10.1 months for ipilimumab alone -6.4 months for vaccine alone* -10.0 months for ipilimumab plus vaccine* [13]
Ipilimumab and dacarbazine Advanced-stage untreated melanoma Dacarbazine alone versus Ipilimumab plus dacarbazine 502 -10.3 % dacarbazine alone -15.2 % ipilimumab with dacarbazine Median OS: -9.1 months for dacarbazine alone* -11.2 months for ipilimumab plus dacarbazine* [79]
Ipilimumab and radiotherapy Post-docetaxel CRPC Radiotherapy followed by placebo versus radiotherapy followed by ipilimumab 799 NA Median OS: -10.0 months for radiotherapy followed by placebo -11.2 months for radiotherapy followed by ipilimumab [149]
Carboplatin plus paclitaxel with placebo or ipilimumab NSCLC Placebo control versus phased or concurrent schedule 204 -18 % chemotherapy control -32 % irBORR ipilimumab Median irPFS: -4.6 months chemotherapy control* -5.7 months for phased ipilimumab* [150]
Carboplatin plus paclitaxel with placebo or ipilimumab ED-SCLC Placebo control versus phased or concurrent schedule 130 -53 % chemotherapy control -71 % irBORR ipilimumab Median irPFS: -5.3 months chemotherapy control* -6.4 months for phased ipilimumab* [151]
  1. The difference between pairs of outcomes marked by either * or † reached statistical significance
  2. CR, Complete response; CRPC, Castrate-resistant prostate cancer; ED-SCLC; Extensive-disease small cell lung cancer; irBORR, Immune-related best overall response rate; irPFS, Immune-related progression-free survival; NA, Not available or not presented; NSCLC, Non-small-cell lung cancer; OS, Overall survival; PR, Partial response