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Table 3 Immunotherapy biomarkers

From: Cancer immunotherapy: the beginning of the end of cancer?

Biomarker Comments Refs
Mutational load In general, the higher the number of mutations the better the response to immunotherapy; not the case for all tumors [154159]
Lymphocyte infiltrates The presence of lymphocyte infiltrates is related to improved survival [2, 97]
PD-L1 expression PD-L1 expression on tumor cells may potentially serve as a useful predictive biomarker for response to anti-PD1/PDL1 therapy; not the case for many tumors [86, 99, 160]
Genetic profiling Patients with higher baseline expression of immune-related genes generally respond better to ipilimumab [97]
  1. PD1, Programmed cell death protein 1; PD-L1, PD1 ligand