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Table 2 Description of follow-up reports

From: Maternal antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation for long-term health benefits in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Location Follow-up study Age at follow- up Eligibility/exclusion criteria for follow-up Risk of bias in loss to follow-up % follow-up in control groupa % follow-up in intervention groupa Outcome measures
Bangladesh JiVitA West et al. [26] 6 months None reported 5 infants lost to follow-up; assumed to be alive at 180 days 100 % 100 % Mortality assessed at 1, 3 and 6 months
Bangladesh MINIMat Persson et al. [27] 5 years None reported None No reported losses No reported losses Mortality assessed at 5 years
  Khan et al. [42] 54 months (monthly to 1 year
3 monthly to 2 years)
Singletons None; imputation used for missing data points 79.9 % of livebirths; 86.5 % of children with birth anthropometry 78.3 % of livebirths; 87.9 % of children with birth anthropometry Length or height, weight
  Khan et al. [45] 54 months Singletons with birth anthropometry Children lost more likely to be first born and have lower birthweight 72.3 % children with birth anthropometry 70.9 % children with birth anthropometry Mid-upper arm circumference, skinfold thickness, body composition by bioelectrical impedance
  Tofail et al. [48] 7 months Subgroup of singletons born May 2002 to December 2003 Small but significant differences in children lost to follow-up; mothers had fewer children, higher haemoglobin and shorter gestation; no significant difference in these between allocation groups Unable to calculate as the number of deaths is only provided for all allocation groups combined Unable to calculate as the number of deaths is only provided for all allocation groups combined Cognition (‘Support test’ and ‘Cover test’)
Motor development (Psychomotor Developmental Index of Bayley Scales of Infant Development)
Behaviour (modified Wolke in three domains: activity, emotion and vocalization)
  Hawkesworth et al. [46] 4 years (mean 4.6 years) Singletons born at term with birth anthropometry Children lost to follow-up more likely to have been firstborn and their mothers on average ~9 months younger with 6 months longer education 69.1 % of livebirths; 73.6 % of children with birth anthropometry 67.9 % of livebirths; 74.0 % of children with birth anthropometry Blood pressure, kidney size by ultrasound (restricted to individuals born during the second half of MINIMat trial, June 2003 to June 2004), and glomerular filtration rate (restricted to individuals born during first y of MINIMat trial, June 2002 to June 2003)
Burkina Faso Roberfroid et al. [35] Monthly to 12 months and 30 months Singletons None 97.8 % 98.0 % Length, weight, head, chest and mid-upper arm circumference
China Wang et al. [41] 3 monthly to 12 months, 6 monthly to 30 months Subgroup born in middle year of 3.5 years recruitment; congenital disease excluded (n = 3) Not specified 84.9 % of selected subgroup 81.3 % of selected subgroup Length, weight
  Li et al. [49] 3 monthly to 1 year Subgroup born in middle year of 3.5 years recruitment Small difference in Apgar scores 89.7 % of selected subgroup 88.6 % of selected subgroup Cognition
Mental and Psychomotor development (Bayley Scales of Infant Development)
  Li et al. [50] 7–9 years Singletons; children who moved away were excluded None 61.0 %b 60.7 %b Cognition
Mental development (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children)
Guinea Bissau Andersen et al. [36] 0–2 years None reported Lost to follow-up different for maternal weight, age, height and parity; no difference between trial groups 77.1 % 77.8 % Mortality by routine surveillance every 3 months up to 1 year and every 6 months after 1 year
Indonesia Prado et al. [37] 42 months 2369 of 41,839 women enrolled randomly assigned to blood tests; children of 549 of these women who gave birth in a 6 month period None reported 94.5 % of selected subgroup 92.8 % of selected subgroup Cognition
Adapted, validated tests for motor, language, visual attention/spatial, executive and socio-emotional function; adjusted analyses presented: confounders included ‘home observation and measurement of environment’ inventory score, child haemoglobin, mother’s mid-upper arm circumference, birth weight, MMN adherence
Mexico Ramakrishnan et al. [38] 3 months
24 months
Singletons; children from antenatal trial subsequently randomised to receive MMN or iron + Vit A Lost to follow-up younger mothers, more educated and less parous 24.9 % of livebirths in childhood randomisation control group; 69.3 % of children randomised in childhood control 26.2 % of livebirths in the childhood randomisation MMN group; 74.2 % of children randomised in childhood control Height, weight, head circumference
Nepal Janakpur Vaidya et al. [43] 2–3 years None reported Difference in lost to follow-up in maternal education, urban/rural residence and main household occupation 85.8 % 86.5 % Height, weight, head, chest, waist, hip and mid-upper arm circumferences, skinfold thickness, blood pressure
  Devakumar et al. [39] 7–9 years None reported Small difference in lost to follow-up in maternal education and urban/rural residence 80.5 % 79.2 % Height, weight, body composition by bioelectrical impedance, skinfold thickness, head, chest, waist, hip, mid-upper arm and upper leg circumferences, kidney dimensions, blood pressure
  Devakumar et al. [52] 7–9 years None reported Small difference in lost to follow-up in maternal education and urban/rural residence; small number (n = 5) with learning difficulties unable to complete spirometry 80.5 % 79.2 % Spirometry, respiratory illness, asthma
Nepal Sarlahi Stewart et al. [44] 6–8 years 3669 also in subsequent childhood trial of iron, folic acid and zinc Lost to follow-up more likely to be of Pahadi (hill) ethnicity, have a literate mother and own a radio, and less likely to own cattle 89.2 % 91.2 % Height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference, skinfold thickness
  Stewart et al. [47] 6–8 years 3673 also in subsequent childhood trial of iron, folic acid and zinc Loss to follow-up did not differ between groups; large number did not complete all tests; children with missing data less likely to be of Pahadi ethnicity or to have had any schooling, and had slightly lower BMI Overall 84.1 %; number of participants varied for each test or measurement Overall 85.1 %; number of participants varied for each test or measurement Metabolic syndrome
BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, urine microalbumin:creatinine, cholesterol, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment
  Christian et al. [51] 7–9 years In control group of subsequent iron and zinc pre-school trial; children followed up in this study represent 23 % of live births in relevant allocation groups in the original trial Main loss to follow-up was exclusion of children taking part in postnatal supplementation trial; children lost more likely to be of Pahadi ethnicity, literate mother, own a radio and less likely to own cattle 75.2 % of subgroup 84.2 % of subgroup Cognition
Universal Non-verbal Intelligence Test Movement Assessment Battery for Children
Finger-tapping test
Executive Function (Stroop Numbers Test, backward digit span, go/no-go)
Environment (Middle Childhood Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment inventory)
Maternal intelligence (Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices)
  Christian et al. [40] 6–8 years None reported None reported 96.1 % 96.0 % Mortality
  1. aDefined as total number measured as a proportion of the total number available for measurement (livebirths minus deaths), as a percentage
  2. bThe percentage excludes 1643 families who have moved out of the area
  3. MMN multiple micronutrient supplement