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Table 2 In vivo animal studies presenting the effect of TP508 on bone and bone healing

From: The role of peptides in bone healing and regeneration: a systematic review

Study/Year Model Mode of delivery Results
Hedberg et al., 2004 [101] Segmental bone defect in rabbits PPF composite scaffolds with 200 or 100 μg TP508 • Enhance bone formation with 200 μg TP508 possibly due to the initial high burst of the molecule
Sheller et al., 2004 [99] Segmental bone defect in rabbits Microspheres with 100 μg or 200 μg TP508 • Enhanced healing of the defects with higher torsional stiffness in the animals treated with TP508
Li et al., 2005 [100] Distraction osteogenesis in rabbits 30 μg or 300 μg into the distraction gap • Enhanced bone formation and consolidation, the 300 μg treatment group had the most advanced results
Wang et al., 2005 [102] Femoral fracture in rats 1 μg or 10 μg in the fracture gap • TP508 found to promote fracture healing by inducing the levels of growth factors, inflammatory mediators and angiogenesis-related genes
Amir et al., 2007 [98] Distraction osteogenesis in rabbits 30 or 300 μg into the distraction gap • Enhance bone regeneration with increased number of osteoblasts
Li et al., 2007 [97] Rat femoral fracture model 1 μg, 10 μg or 100 μg in the fracture gap • TP508 accelerated fracture healing by upregulating the expression levels of molecules involved in cellular proliferation, cellular growth and apoptosis
Wang et al., 2008 [96] Distraction osteogenesis in rabbits Slow releasing TP508 preparation (300 μg in PPF/PLGA microparticles) • Enhanced bone consolidation process with better quality bone
Hanratty et al., 2009 [95] High energy femoral fracture in mice 10 μg or 100 μg at fracture site, or 100 μg at muscles adjacent the fracture • 100 μg in fracture gap significantly increased bone formation and fracture stiffness • Less scar tissue and increased blood vessel formation was noted when TP508 was injected in the adjacent to the fracture muscles
Cakarer et al., 2010 [94] Distraction osteogenesis in rats 10 μg and 100 μg percutaneously • Significant larger area of consolidation in the animal receiving TP508; the higher dose was more effective