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Fig. 4 | BMC Medicine

Fig. 4

From: Post-mortem assessment in vascular dementia: advances and aspirations

Fig. 4

Schematic illustration of the distribution of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG; pink dots) and proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1; green dots) in the myelin sheath. When the supply of oxygen and glucose is insufficient to meet the metabolic needs of the oligodendrocyte, as occurs in hypoperfusion, the first part of the cell to degenerate is the adaxonal loop of myelin – the part of the oligodendrocyte that is furthest away from the cell body (so-called dying back oligodendrogliopathy). Because MAG is restricted to the adaxonal loop of myelin whereas PLP1 is widely distributed throughout the myelin sheath, hypoperfusion leads to greater loss of MAG than PLP1. In contrast, degeneration of nerve fibres causes loss of both MAG and PLP1. The severity of ante mortem hypoperfusion can be assessed by measuring the ratio of MAG to PLP1. Illustration from [175] with permission from Prof. S. Love

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