Skip to main content

Table 3 Cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality, the number of cases and proportion potentially preventable by increasing adherence to the Mediterranean diet: the EPIC-Norfolk studya

From: Prospective association of the Mediterranean diet with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality and its population impact in a non-Mediterranean population: the EPIC-Norfolk study

  The whole cohort (n = 23,902) High risk population (n = 15,767)b
Incidencec Cases preventablec PAF% (95 % CI)c Incidencec Cases preventablec PAF% (95 % CI)c
Incident CVD events
 All incident CVD 248.6 9.7 3.9 (1.3–6.5) 334.4 13.0 3.9 (1.1–6.7)
 Incident IHD 98.2 8.4 8.5 (1.9–15.2) 138.3 10.8 7.8 (1.3–14.3)
 Incident stroke 33.8 3.7 10.8 (−1.5 to 23.1) 48.1 4.9 10.2 (−2.1 to 22.6)
 Incident IHD or stroke 120.3 10.2 8.5 (3.1–13.9) 168.9 13.1 7.7 (2.3–13.2)
Mortality events
 All-cause mortality 138.4 7.5 5.4 (1.3–9.5) 191.3 10.9 5.7 (1.6–9.8)
 CVD mortality 43.9 5.5 12.5 (4.5–20.6) 65.0 7.4 11.4 (3.3–19.6)
 IHD mortality 21.1 3.5 16.6 (1.9–31.2) 31.3 4.8 15.4 (0.5–30.3)
 Stroke mortality 13.2 0.7 5.3 (−12.0 to 22.7) 19.6 0.9 4.6 (−13.0 to 22.2)
 IHD or stroke mortality 34.1 4.1 11.9 (1.75–22.0) 50.3 5.4 10.7 (0.48–20.9)
  1. aIncreasing adherence to the top 5 % (95th percentile, or 10.7 out of possible 15 points) of the Mediterranean dietary score based on the dietary pyramid (PyrMDS). See Additional file 1: Table S2 for further details on the scoring criteria for PyrMDS
  2. bHigh risk defined as a QRISK2 score of 10 % or above for 10 year risk of CVD, for whom a pharmacological intervention (statin treatment) is advised in the United Kingdom
  3. cPer 1000 population over 10 years. PAF, indicating proportion of cases attributable to the exposure of interest (low adherence to the Mediterranean diet)
  4. CI, confidence interval; CVD, cardiovascular disease; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; PAF, population attributable fraction