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Table 2 Association between thyroid function and the risk of incident prediabetes and diabetes

From: Thyroid function and risk of type 2 diabetes: a population-based prospective cohort study

Thyroid function measurements HR (95 % CI) Model 1 HR (95 % CI) Model 2 Incident cases Total participants
Incident Diabetes
 Full range of measurement
  TSH mIU/L 1.09 (1.06–1.12) 1.06 (1.00–1.13) 798 8447
  Free T4 pmol/L 0.96 (0.93–0.99) 0.96 (0.93–0.99) 797 8446
 Normal TSH and FT4 values
  TSH mIU/L 1.16 (1.04–1.30) 1.14 (1.02–1.27) 685 7188
  Free T4 pmol/L 0.96 (0.92–0.99) 0.94 (0.90–0.98) 685 7188
Progression from prediabetes to diabetes
 Full range of measurement
  TSH mIU/L 1.17 (1.07–1.27) 1.13 (1.03–1.24) 412 1337
  Free T4 pmol/L 0.92 (0.89–0.97) 0.93 (0.89–0.98) 411 1336
 Normal TSH and FT4 values
  TSH mIU/L 1.26 (1.08–1.47) 1.21 (1.04–1.41) 358 1137
  Free T4 pmol/L 0.90 (0.85–0.95) 0.91 (0.86–0.97) 358 1137
  1. Model 1: adjusted for sex, age, smoking, fasting serum glucose levels and cohort
  2. Model 2: adjusted for sex, age, smoking, cohort, fasting serum glucose levels, fasting serum insulin measurements, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, blood pressure lowering medication, HDL cholesterol, and body mass index
  3. Normal range of TSH is defined by 0.4–4.0 mIU/L and normal range FT4 is defined by 11–25 pmol/L and participants not using levothyroxine
  4. Results are presented as HR per doubling of TSH on average and per one increase in pmol/L of FT4
  5. CI confidence interval, FT4 free thyroxine, HR hazard ratio, TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone