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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of obese subjects by metabolic syndrome

From: Association of circulating neuregulin 4 with metabolic syndrome in obese adults: a cross-sectional study

Variables Overall Metabolic syndrome Non-metabolic syndrome P value
Sample size 1212 781 431  
Age, years 53.3 ± 7.3 54.3 ± 7.2 51.6 ± 7.2 < 0.001
Gender (male), n (%) 347 (28.6) 251 (32.1) 96 (22.3) < 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 27.1 ± 2.7 27.4 ± 2.8 26.6 ± 2.6 < 0.001
Waist circumference, cm 93.8 ± 7.2 94.7 ± 7.4 92.2 ± 6.6 < 0.001
Current smokers, n (%) 158 (13.0) 104 (13.3) 54 (12.5) 0.445
Systolic BP, mmHg 133.3 ± 17.5 139.2 ± 16.4 122.6 ± 14.2 < 0.001
Diastolic BP, mmHg 79.3 ± 10.6 82.3 ± 10.3 73.7 ± 8.7 < 0.001
Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.6 (1.1–2.3) 1.9 (1.4–2.7) 1.5 (1.1–2.0) < 0.001
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 5.9 ± 1.1 6.0 ± 1.1 5.7 ± 1.0 < 0.001
LDL- cholesterol, mmol/L 3.7 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 1.0 3.6 ± 0.9 0.533
HDL-cholesterol, mmol/L 1.4 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.3 1.5 ± 0.3 < 0.001
Fasting glucose, mmol/L 6.1 ± 1.7 6.5 ± 1.9 5.5 ± 0.9 < 0.001
2-h glucose, mmol/L 9.0 ± 4.0 9.9 ± 4.4 7.2 ± 2.3 < 0.001
HOMA-IR 2.92 (2.10–4.25) 2.81 (2.04–4.04) 2.83 (1.84–3.99) < 0.001
Serum Nrg4, ng/mL 3.35 (2.47–4.74) 3.24 (2.40–4.52) 3.55 (2.60–5.29) 0.002
Body fat mass, kg 24.0 ± 5.3 24.3 ± 5.4 23.5 ± 5.1 0.013
  1. Data are presented as the mean ± SD or median (interquartile range)
  2. BMI body mass index, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, Nrg4 Neuregulin 4