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Table 1 Nut consumption and coronary heart disease, stroke, cardiovascular disease, total cancer, mortality, and other causes of mortality

From: Nut consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies

Outcomea Exposure Cases or deaths Participants High vs. low analysis Dose–response analysisb
N RR (95% CI) I2 (%) P heterogeneity N RR (95% CI) I2 (%) P heterogeneity
Coronary heart disease Total nuts 12,331 315,397 11 0.76 (0.69–0.84) 47.5 0.04 11 0.71 (0.63–0.80) 47.4 0.04
Tree nuts 6394 130,987 3 0.79 (0.68–0.92) 28.0 0.25 3 0.73 (0.63–0.85) 0 0.44
Peanuts 7025 265,252 5 0.76 (0.69–0.82) 0 0.65 5 0.69 (0.57–0.84) 45.1 0.12
Stroke Total nuts 9272 396,768 10 0.89 (0.82–0.97) 0 0.90 11 0.93 (0.83–1.05) 13.7 0.31
Tree nuts 2130 130,987 3 0.93 (0.77–1.13) 0 0.44 3 0.89 (0.69–1.14) 0 0.58
Peanuts 3315 265,252 5 0.83 (0.69–1.00) 45.9 0.12 5 0.63 (0.41–0.95) 77.6 0.001
Cardiovascular disease Total nuts 18,655 376,228 11 0.81 (0.74–0.89) 52.3 0.02 12 0.79 (0.70–0.88) 59.6 0.004
Tree nuts 9456 130,987 3 0.81 (0.74–0.89) 0 0.62 3 0.75 (0.67–0.84) 0 0.84
Peanuts 12,043 265,252 5 0.81 (0.75–0.87) 15.0 0.32 5 0.64 (0.50–0.81) 77.0 0.001
Total cancer Total nuts 17,603 254,240 8 0.82 (0.74–0.89) 27.5 0.21 8 0.85 (0.76–0.94) 41.8 0.10
Tree nuts 14,210 130,987 3 0.82 (0.76–0.90) 0 0.98 3 0.80 (0.72–0.89) 0 0.99
Peanuts 17,742 265,252 5 0.93 (0.87–0.99) 19 0.30 5 0.92 (0.82–1.03) 30.0 0.22
All-cause mortality Total nuts 85,870 819,448 15 0.81 (0.77–0.85) 41.0 0.05 16 0.78 (0.72–0.84) 66.0 <,0.0001
Tree nuts 42,508 202,751 4 0.80 (0.74–0.86) 58.0 0.07 4 0.82 (0.75–0.90) 70.0 0.02
Peanuts 44,396 265,252 5 0.85 (0.82–0.89) 18.0 0.30 5 0.77 (0.69–0.86) 64.0 0.03
Peanut butter 15,079 83,789 2 0.89 (0.80–0.99) 31.0 0.23 2 0.94 (0.86–1.02) 0 0.76
Respiratory disease mortality Total nuts 2551 130,987 3 0.76 (0.61–0.94) 53.9 0.09 3 0.48 (0.26–0.89) 60.8 0.08
Tree nuts 2551 130,987 3 0.89 (0.74–1.07) 0 0.78 3 0.79 (0.62–1.01) 0 0.43
Peanuts 2551 130,987 3 0.77 (0.63–0.93) 39.2 0.19 3 0.69 (0.53–0.91) 49.8 0.14
Diabetes mortality Total nuts 800 202,751 4 0.68 (0.52–0.90) 0 0.59 4 0.61 (0.43–0.88) 0 0.76
Tree nuts 462 130,987 3 1.19 (0.74–1.89) 0 0.43 3 1.23 (0.68–2.25) 0 0.62
Peanuts 901 265,252 5 0.84 (0.60–1.19) 42.6 0.14 5 0.73 (0.45–1.20) 15.4 0.32
Neurodegenerative disease mortality Total nuts 2056 130,987 3 0.93 (0.72–1.21) 6 0.30 3 0.65 (0.40–1.08) 5.9 0.35
Tree nuts 2056 130,987 3 0.94 (0.75–1.18) 13.8 0.31 3 0.81 (0.58–1.12) 25.6 0.26
Peanuts 2056 130,987 3 0.94 (0.72–1.23) 45.9 0.16 3 0.92 (0.65–1.31) 48.6 0.14
Infectious disease mortality Total nuts 397 118,962 2 0.79 (0.56–1.11) 0 0.49 2 0.25 (0.07–0.85) 0 0.74
Tree nuts 397 118,962 2 0.73 (0.47–1.13) 0 0.79 2 0.64 (0.36–1.13) 0 0.40
Peanuts 397 118,962 2 1.01 (0.83–1.23) 12.5 0.29 2 1.03 (0.81–1.31) 2.6 0.31
Kidney disease mortality Total nuts 367 118,962 2 0.69 (0.38–1.25) 69.0 0.07 2 0.27 (0.04–1.91) 61.0 0.11
Tree nuts 367 118,962 2 0.65 (0.40–1.03) 0 0.48 2 0.66 (0.36–1.22) 0 0.68
Peanuts 367 118,962 2 0.52 (0.27–0.97) 52.1 0.15 2 0.42 (0.24–0.73) 0 0.35
  1. aAssociations which were statistically significant are shown with bold font
  2. bThe increment for the dose-response analysis is 28 g/d for total nuts and 10 g/d for tree nuts and peanuts