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Table 2 Cognitive domains of synthesised studies, including subdomains

From: Cognition in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Cognitive domain (Studies) Sub-domains (Studies) Description of domain Examples
Orientation & Attention (28) Orientation (0) Ability to attend to one’s environment and maintain short-term or continuous focus on information or tasks Trail Making Test, digit span, digit-symbol substitution, immediate recall
Attention, processing speed, and working memory (28)
Perception (1) Visual (0) Ability to receive and make sense of stimuli Hooper Visual Organization, Halstead-Reitan speech sounds perception test
Auditory (1)
Tactile (1)
Olfactory (0)
Memory (17) Verbal (16) Ability to remember information, whether verbal, auditory, or visual following a period of time California Verbal Learning Test, Wechsler Memory Scale, facial memory, visual memory, word list, long delay recall
Visual (4)
Tactile (0)
Incidental learning (0)
Prospective learning (0)
Remote memory (0)
Language (9) Aphasia (3) Ability to understand, produce, and use language appropriately Boston Naming Test
Verbal expression (4)
Verbal comprehension (3)
Verbal academic skills (0)
Construction & Motor Praxis (11) Drawing (4) Ability to produce or orient within space 2D or 3D representations Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale block design and object assembly tests, Purdue Pegboard
Assembling and building (4)
Motor skills (3)
Concept Formation & Reasoning (6) Concept formation (2) Ability to utilise patterns and abstract concepts to solve problems Judgment of Line Orientation, Raven’s Progressive Matrices
Reasoning (4)
Mathematical procedures (0)
Executive Functions (15)   ‘Higher order’ abilities that draw on multiple other domains Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, verbal fluency
Global Cognition (25)   Collection of domains measured in cognitive impairment (e.g. dementia and Alzheimer’s disease) screening tests; these primarily measure Orientation & Attention, Memory, and Language MMSE, Modified MMSE (3MS), Telephone Interview for Cognitive status