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Table 3 Demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical characteristics of the study population (n = 5249) and their associations with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological distress at 1 year after diagnosis as measured by the EORTC QLQ-C30, EQ-5D, and HADS

From: Health-related quality of life and psychological distress among cancer survivors in Southeast Asia: results from a longitudinal study in eight low- and middle-income countries

  HRQoL Psychological distress
Generic HRQoL Cancer-specific HRQoL (EORTC QLQ-C30)  
EQ-5D indexa Physical function Emotional function Global health Pain Fatigue Anxiety Depression
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) N (%) N (%)
Age group, years
  < 45 0.76 (0.22) 81.9 (21.5) 77.8 (24.0) 67.0 (23.0) 19.2 (24.1) 21.6 (24.0) 570 (36) 678 (43)
 45–54 0.75 (0.22) 80.9 (21.9) 76.7 (24.2) 67.5 (21.1) 20.7 (25.7) 23.5 (24.6) 513 (33) 663 (42)
 55–64 0.73 (0.23) 77.9 (22.1) 75.8 (24.4) 65.9 (21.0) 22.1 (24.9) 26.1 (24.9) 519 (38) 644 (47)
  ≥ 65 0.67 (0.25) 70.5 (26.1) 72.6 (28.0) 62.6 (23.3) 31.4 (28.3) 31.4 (28.3) 330 (45) 408 (56)
Sex
 Female 0.75 (0.22) 80.1 (21.7) 76.8 (24.4) 66.2 (18.1) 20.2 (24.5) 23.9 (24.8) 1262 (35) 1560 (43)
 Male 0.71 (0.24) 76.5 (24.8) 75.0 (25.5) 62.3 (20.0) 24.1 (27.0) 26.6 (26.0) 671 (42) 834 (52)
Marital status
 Married 0.74 (0.23) 79.2 (22.5) 76.5 (24.3) 66.7 (21.6) 21.5 (25.3) 24.6 (25.0) 1501 (37) 1845 (46)
 Not married 0.73 (0.23) 78.3 (23.6) 75.5 (26.3) 64.9 (23.5) 21.1 (25.7) 24.9 (26.1) 432 (36) 549 (46)
Level of education
 0–6 years (primary) 0.73 (0.23) 77.8 (24.1) 77.1 (24.8) 68.1 (21.6) 21.5 (26.1) 24.2 (25.7) 641 (33) 849 (44)
 7–12 years (secondary) 0.74 (0.23) 79.1 (21.8) 75.4 (24.2) 64.3 (21.4) 22.1 (24.8) 25.7 (24.7) 908 (42) 1088 (50)
  > 12 years (tertiary) 0.75 (0.22) 80.8 (22.2) 76.3 (25.8) 66.8 (23.5) 19.9 (25.2) 23.7 (25.4) 384 (33) 457 (40)
Household income
 Low (0–75%) 0.71 (0.23) 76.5 (24.9) 74.0 (25.8) 64.9 (23.2) 23.3 (27.0) 25.4 (26.4) 712 (43) 818 (50)
 Med (75–125%) 0.72 (0.23) 78.3 (21.8) 76.0 (24.3) 65.1 (22.1) 21.5 (24.9) 23.6 (24.2) 420 (40) 526 (50)
 High (> 125%) 0.78 (0.22) 81.6 (21.2) 78.0 (24.4) 67.1 (20.7) 18.7 (23.8) 24.0 (24.5) 510 (28) 685 (38)
Health insurance
 Yes 0.75 (0.22) 78.6 (24.2) 76.9 (24.8) 68.0 (21.4) 22.7 (26.3) 25.9 (26.1) 813 (36) 1022 (46)
 No 0.73 (0.23) 79.3 (21.6) 75.7 (24.8) 64.9 (22.4) 20.4 (24.6) 23.8 (24.5) 1120 (38) 1372 (46)
Economic hardship
 Yes 0.73 (0.23) 77.1 (24.9) 75.2 (25.9) 67.8 (22.0) 23.6 (27.5) 26.6 (27.1) 949 (36) 1217 (46)
 No 0.75 (0.22) 80.9 (20.2) 77.3 (23.6) 64.7 (22.0) 19.2 (22.8) 22.8 (23.0) 984 (38) 1177 (45)
Paid work
 Yes 0.75 (0.22) 80.9 (22.2) 77.0 (24.9) 67.3 (21.8) 19.5 (25.1) 22.7 (24.8) 787 (32) 996 (40)
 No 0.72 (0.23) 77.2 (23.2) 75.5 (24.7) 65.3 (22.2) 23.1 (25.6) 26.5 (25.5) 1146 (42) 1398 (51)
Cancer stage at diagnosis
 Stage I 0.81 (0.20) 85.7 (15.8) 82.3 (18.9) 74.2 (18.3) 12.5 (18.0) 16.6 (19.5) 99 (23) 141 (32)
 Stage II 0.79 (0.21) 83.6 (18.6) 79.9 (22.8) 71.5 (18.9) 15.7 (21.1) 20.0 (22.0) 323 (27) 424 (36)
 Stage III 0.75 (0.22) 79.6 (23.3) 76.0 (25.3) 69.0 (21.6) 20.4 (26.1) 24.0 (25.6) 296 (30) 400 (41)
 Stage IV 0.65 (0.24) 69.8 (29.0) 63.4 (34.7) 57.0 (23.8) 32.6 (32.0) 36.6 (32.3) 265 (47) 327 (58)
 None (hematological cancers) 0.67 (0.23) 77.4 (18.6) 77.9 (18.6) 44.7 (26.8) 21.1 (21.0) 22.1 (19.6) 308 (71) 313 (72)
Treatmentb
  Surgery 0.78 (0.22) 82.1 (21.2) 78.7 (25.2) 69.9 (20.5) 17.9 (24.5) 22.1 (25.3) 1051 (36) 1051 (36)
  No surgery 0.68 (0.23) 74.8 (24.1) 72.9 (24.1) 61.4 (23.2) 25.7 (25.8) 27.9 (24.9) 1123 (51) 1322 (60)
  Radiotherapy 0.73 (0.22) 78.6 (22.5) 76.1 (24.4) 67.0 (21.7) 20.1 (24.9) 25.3 (25.0) 881 (36) 1123 (46)
  No radiotherapy 0.74 (0.23) 79.2 (22.9) 76.2 (25.3) 65.5 (22.5) 22.5 (25.8) 24.0 (25.5) 1026 (38) 1248 (46)
  Chemotherapy 0.73 (0.23) 78.6 (22.7) 75.2 (25.2) 65.0 (22.9) 21.7 (25.6) 25.3 (25.6) 1330 (38) 1652 (47)
  No chemotherapy 0.76 (0.23) 79.7 (23.0) 78.4 (23.9) 69.0 (20.2) 20.2 (24.7) 23.1 (24.6) 580 (36) 732 (45)
Pre-existing chronic conditions
 0 0.74 (0.23) 79.6 (22.4) 76.8 (24.0) 66.3 (22.0) 21.1 (25.1) 24.0 (24.8) 1503 (37) 1853 (46)
 1 0.74 (0.23) 79.0 (22.8) 77.2 (24.7) 66.5 (21.7) 20.4 (24.8) 24.2 (24.9) 266 (32) 357 (43)
  ≥ 2 0.67 (0.23) 71.5 (25.1) 67.5 (31.7) 64.8 (23.7) 27.5 (29.5) 34.6 (29.3) 159 (45) 177 (50)
  1. aIndex scores based on Thai tariff
  2. bCategories are not mutually exclusive since most patients received a combination of treatments