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Table 1 Sensitivity analyses of pooled RRs of cardiovascular events and mortality

From: What is the association of hypothyroidism with risks of cardiovascular events and mortality? A meta-analysis of 55 cohort studies involving 1,898,314 participants

  IHD Cardiac mortality Cardiovascular mortality
N studies RR (95% CI) I 2 P valuea N studies RR (95% CI) I 2 P valuea N studies RR (95% CI) I 2 P valuea
Statistical model
 Random effects 13 1.13 (1.01–1.26) 40.2% 0.07 7 1.96 (1.38–2.80) 66.2% 0.007 17 1.11 (0.97–1.28) 11.1% 0.32
 Fixed effects 13 1.12 (1.05–1.20) - - 7 1.73 (1.45–2.08) - - 17 1.11 (0.99–1.25) - -
Analyses with
 Large cohortb 3 1.11 (1.01–1.21) 0.0% 0.70 1 1.38 (1.03–1.84) - - 2 1.50 (1.05–2.14) 0.0% 0.52
 No RT at baseline 7 1.11 (1.03–1.20) 0.0% 0.49 6 2.22 (1.52–3.24) 60.6% 0.03 8 1.13 (0.95–1.35) 5.6% 0.39
 High-quality studiesc 11 1.13 (1.03–1.25) 31.5% 0.15 5 1.77 (1.23–2.54) 70.3% 0.009 14 1.11 (0.92–1.32) 23.7% 0.20
Analyses except
 Outlier studyd 13 1.13 (1.01–1.26) 40.2% 0.07 5 1.55 (1.15–2.08) 37.9% 0.17 17 1.11 (0.97–1.28) 11.1% 0.32
 Calculated RRse 12 1.12 (1.01–1.24) 38.3% 0.09 7 1.96 (1.38–2.80) 66.2% 0.007 16 1.11 (0.96–1.28) 16.3% 0.27
  All-cause mortality Stroke HF
N studies RR (95% CI) I 2 P valuea N studies RR (95% CI) I 2 P valuea N studies RR (95% CI) I 2 P valuea
Statistical model
 Random effects 40 1.25 (1.13–1.39) 86.9% <0.001 9 1.09 (0.96–1.24) 52.3% 0.03 8 1.13 (0.98–1.30) 54.8% 0.03
 Fixed effects 40 1.20 (1.16–1.23) - - 9 1.03 (0.97–1.09) - - 8 1.07 (1.00–1.14) - -
Analyses with
 Large cohortb 7 1.18 (0.94–1.48) 97.0% <0.001 2 1.01 (0.86–1.19) 86.3% 0.007 2 1.03 (0.95–1.11) 0.0% 0.87
 No RT at baseline 20 1.32 (1.10–1.59) 92.0% <0.001 1 0.93 (0.85–1.01) - - 4 1.02 (0.95–1.09) 0.0% 0.90
 High-quality studiesc 34 1.25 (1.11–1.39) 88.6% <0.001 9 1.09 (0.96–1.24) 52.3% 0.03 6 1.17 (0.99–1.39) 66.3% 0.01
Analyses except
 Outlier studyd 32 1.30 (1.22–1.39) 26.4% 0.09 8 1.12 (1.04–1.21) 0.0% 0.43 7 1.07 (0.94–1.21) 34.4% 0.16
 Calculated RRse 38 1.27 (1.15–1.41) 87.1% <0.001 9 1.09 (0.96–1.24) 52.3% 0.03 8 1.13 (0.98–1.30) 54.8% 0.03
  MI AF Total cardiovascular events
N studies RR (95% CI) I 2 P valuea N studies RR (95% CI) I 2 P valuea N studies RR (95% CI) I 2 P valuea
Statistical model
 Random effects 7 1.15 (1.05–1.25) 0.0% 0.43 4 1.02 (0.71–1.46) 70.6% 0.02 8 1.16 (0.97–1.38) 73.4% <0.001
 Fixed effects 7 1.15 (1.05–1.25) - - 4 1.02 (0.85–1.21) - - 8 1.06 (1.01–1.11) - -
Analyses with
 Large cohortb 2 1.12 (1.02–1.24) 0.0% 0.55 2 1.09 (0.59–2.02) 89.9% 0.002 2 1.15 (0.84–1.57) 92.2% <0.001
 No RT at baseline 4 1.12 (1.02–1.23) 0.0% 0.57 1 0.80 (0.62–1.03) - - 3 1.12 (0.80–1.56) 25.2% 0.26
 High-quality studiesc 7 1.15 (1.05–1.25) 0.0% 0.43 3 1.06 (0.66–1.70) 79.9% 0.007 8 1.19 (0.99–1.43) 73.5% <0.001
Analyses except
 Outlier studyd 7 1.15 (1.05–1.25) 0.0% 0.43 3 0.83 (0.67–1.03) 0.0% 0.85 7 1.28 (1.16–1.40) 0.0% 0.50
 Calculated RRse 6 1.14 (1.05–1.24) 0.0% 0.58 4 1.02 (0.71–1.46) 70.6% 0.02 8 1.16 (0.97–1.38) 73.4% <0.001
  1. AF atrial fibrillation, CI confidence interval, HF heart failure, IHD ischemic heart disease, MI myocardial infarction, RR relative risk, RT replacement therapy
  2. a P value for heterogeneity
  3. bLarge cohort studies with >10,000 population
  4. cHigh-quality studies with a total score of ≥6
  5. dOutlier studies found by sensitivity analyses (hetred command); there were 2 for cardiac mortality, 8 for all-cause mortality, 1 for stroke, 1 for HF, 1 for AF, and 1 for total cardiovascular events
  6. eThree cohort studies did not report the estimates: Aho et al. [21] (cardiovascular mortality), Bai et al. [20] (IHD, all-cause mortality, MI), Parle et al. [19] (all-cause mortality)