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Table 10 Salient characteristics of potential predatory journals

From: Potential predatory and legitimate biomedical journals: can you tell the difference? A cross-sectional comparison

1. The scope of interest includes non-biomedical subjects alongside biomedical topics
2. The website contains spelling and grammar errors
3. Images are distorted/fuzzy, intended to look like something they are not, or which are unauthorized
4. The homepage language targets authors
5. The Index Copernicus Value is promoted on the website
6. Description of the manuscript handling process is lacking
7. Manuscripts are requested to be submitted via email
8. Rapid publication is promised
9. There is no retraction policy
10. Information on whether and how journal content will be digitally preserved is absent
11. The Article processing/publication charge is very low (e.g., < $150 USD)
12. Journals claiming to be open access either retain copyright of published research or fail to mention copyright
13. The contact email address is non-professional and non-journal affiliated (e.g., or