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Table 2 Cardiometabolic markers across pregnancy between randomised treatment groups

From: The effect of an antenatal lifestyle intervention in overweight and obese women on circulating cardiometabolic and inflammatory biomarkers: secondary analyses from the LIMIT randomised trial

Outcome Lifestyle intervention group Standard care group Estimated effect (95% CI) (unadjusted) P value (unadjusted) Estimated effect (95% CI) (adjusted)a P value (adjusted)
Cholesterol (mmol/L)     0.856*   0.866*
 Baseline 5.48 (1.22) 5.54 (1.22) –0.04 (–0.17, 0.09) 0.521 –0.04 (–0.17, 0.09) 0.512
 28 weeks 6.49 (1.47) 6.59 (1.47) –0.07 (–0.20, 0.07) 0.320 –0.06 (–0.19, 0.08) 0.396
 36 weeks 6.76 (1.51) 6.83 (1.55) –0.08 (–0.21, 0.06) 0.273 –0.08 (–0.22, 0.06) 0.265
CRPb,c (mg/L)     0.284*   0.338*
 Baseline 6.82 (4.04, 11.34) 6.47 (3.36, 11.32) 1.09 (1.01, 1.18) 0.032 1.08 (1.01, 1.17) 0.036
 28 weeks 6.40 (3.67, 10.43) 5.92 (3.19, 10.18) 1.12 (1.03, 1.21) 0.006 1.11 (1.03, 1.20) 0.006
 36 weeks 5.35 (3.08, 8.85) 4.55 (2.49, 8.18) 1.15 (1.06, 1.25) <0.001 1.14 (1.05, 1.23) 0.001
Glucose (mmol/L)     0.775*   0.690*
 Baseline 4.78 (0.94) 4.76 (0.97) 0.01 (–0.10, 0.12) 0.864 0.01 (–0.10, 0.11) 0.910
 28 weeks 4.89 (1.32) 4.83 (1.38) 0.06 (–0.05, 0.17) 0.299 0.07 (–0.04, 0.18) 0.227
 36 weeks 5.12 (1.19) 5.08 (1.13) 0.04 (–0.08, 0.16) 0.534 0.03 (–0.08, 0.14) 0.622
HDL (mmol/L)     0.634*   0.577*
 Baseline 1.43 (0.37) 1.44 (0.36) 0.00 (–0.03, 0.04) 0.976 0.00 (–0.03, 0.04) 0.938
 28 weeks 1.49 (0.39) 1.48 (0.40) 0.01 (–0.03, 0.05) 0.589 0.01 (–0.02, 0.05) 0.492
 36 weeks 1.37 (0.36) 1.39 (0.39) –0.00 (–0.04, 0.03) 0.807 –0.00 (–0.04, 0.03) 0.860
Insulinb,c (μIU/mL)
 28 weeks 18.92 (13.35, 27.16) 18.42 (13.57, 26.07) 1.03 (0.96, 1.10) 0.419 1.02 (0.96, 1.09) 0.471
Adiponectinb (μg/mL)     0.097*   0.117*
 Trial entry 8.16 (5.81, 12.15) 8.66 (6.31, 11.96) 0.99 (0.94, 1.04) 0.656 0.99 (0.94, 1.04) 0.650
 28 weeks 7.46 (5.07, 10.61) 7.67 (5.60, 10.80) 0.95 (0.89, 1.00) 0.046 0.94 (0.89, 1.00) 0.034
 36 weeks 7.83 (5.76, 10.83) 7.98 (5.73, 11.25) 1.00 (0.95, 1.06) 0.989 0.99 (0.94, 1.05) 0.787
Leptinb (ng/mL)     0.257*   0.241*
 Trial entry 52.21 (37.76, 69.66) 48.66 (35.12, 68.19) 1.04 (0.99, 1.09) 0.145 1.03 (0.99, 1.08) 0.160
 28 weeks 60.87 (43.74, 79.72) 59.41 (43.07, 82.31) 1.00 (0.95, 1.05) 0.933 0.99 (0.94, 1.04) 0.759
 36 weeks 54.15 (36.68, 74.20) 54.49 (36.76, 74.39) 1.02 (0.97, 1.08) 0.380 1.02 (0.97, 1.07) 0.538
NEFAb,c (mmol/L)
 28 weeks 0.34 (0.21, 0.47) 0.35 (0.23, 0.47) 0.97 (0.90, 1.03) 0.316 0.96 (0.90, 1.03) 0.271
Triglyceridesb (mmol/L)
 28 weeks 2.15 (1.73, 2.64) 2.15 (1.69, 2.69) 1.00 (0.96, 1.03) 0.908 1.00 (0.97, 1.04) 0.941
LDL (mmol/L)
 28 weeks 4.54 (1.39) 4.65 (1.41) 0.10 (–0.04, 0.24) 0.152 0.09 (–0.05, 0.23) 0.192
  1. aAdjustment for centre, parity, BMI category (stratification variables), Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage quintile, smoking status, and maternal age at consent
  2. bOutcomes log transformed for analysis; the descriptives presented for these outcomes are median and interquartile range. Model estimates for these outcomes have been back-transformed to the original scale, and are therefore ratios of geometric means (approximately ratios of medians) (Intervention/Routine Care)
  3. cOutcomes modelled using Tobit regression due to presence of values below and/or above detectable limits
  4. For outcomes with repeated measures, numbers represent the number of women with a measure at any of the three timepoints (hence included in the model); for outcomes with only one time point, numbers are the number of women with a measure at that time
  5. All other outcomes, are mean and standard deviation, and model estimates are differences in means
  6. *P values for the time-by-treatment interaction term (i.e. testing whether the effect of treatment differed by time point)
  7. CRP C-reactive protein, HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, NEFA non-esterified fatty acids, LDL low-density lipoprotein cholesterol