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Table 2 Association of risk factors with hazard of ventricular arrhythmias in patients who received allopurinol with no baseline ventricular arrhythmias before the index date of allopurinol episode

From: Allopurinol and the risk of ventricular arrhythmias in the elderly: a study using US Medicare data

  Univariate Multivariable adjusted (Model 1) Multivariable adjusted (Model 2)
HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value
Age (in years)
 65 to < 75 Ref   Ref   Ref  
 75 to < 85 1.25 (1.15–1.36) < 0.0001 1.19 (1.09–1.30) < 0.0001 1.19 (1.09–1.30) < 0.0001
  ≥ 85 1.43 (1.28–1.60) < 0.0001 1.37 (1.22–1.53) < 0.0001 1.37 (1.22–1.53) < 0.0001
Sex
 Male Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Female 0.81 (0.75–0.87) 0.50 0.74 (0.68–0.80) < 0.0001 0.73 (0.68–0.80) < 0.0001
Race
 White Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Black 1.32 (1.19–1.48) < 0.0001 1.30 (1.16–1.45) < 0.0001 1.29 (1.15–1.44) < 0.0001
 Other 0.80 (0.69–0.94) 0.005 0.78 (0.67–0.91) 0.002 0.78 (0.67–0.90) 0.001
Charlson–Romano score, per unit change 1.15 (1.14–1.16) < 0.0001 1.14 (1.13–1.16) < 0.0001 1.14 (1.13–1.16) < 0.0001
Diuretics 1.12 (0.94–1.33) 0.21 1.03 (0.86–1.24) 0.72 1.03 (0.86–1.24) 0.74
Statins 0.86 (0.70–1.05) 0.13 0.79 (0.64–0.97) 0.02 0.79 (0.64–0.97) 0.02
ACE inhibitor 1.09 (0.88–1.34) 0.43 1.11 (0.90–1.38) 0.32 1.11 (0.90–1.38) 0.33
Beta blockers 1.42 (1.20–1.68) < 0.0001 1.41 (1.18–1.68) 0.0001 1.40 (1.18–1.68) 0.0001
Allopurinol use 0.86 (0.79–0.94) 0.001 0.82 (0.76–0.90) < 0.0001
Allopurinol use durationa
 0 days Ref   Ref  
 1 to 180 days 0.99 (0.88–1.12) 0.88 0.96 (0.85–1.08) 0.49
 181 days to 2 years 0.81 (0.72–0.90) 0.0002 0.76 (0.68–0.85) < 0.0001
  > 2 years 0.74 (0.62–0.90) 0.002 0.72 (0.60–0.87) 0.001
  1. Significant hazards ratios and P values are in bold
  2. aBased on person day count
  3. Model 1 = Allopurinol use + age + race + sex + Charlson–Romano score + beta blockers + diuretics + ACE inhibitors + statins
  4. Model 2 = Allopurinol duration + age + race + sex + Charlson–Romano score + beta blockers + diuretics + ACE inhibitors + statins
  5. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, Ref referent category