Skip to main content


Fig. 1 | BMC Medicine

Fig. 1

From: Habitual coffee consumption and genetic predisposition to obesity: gene-diet interaction analyses in three US prospective studies

Fig. 1

Genetic associations with prevalent obesity, according to coffee consumption in the HPFS, NHS, and WHI. Data are odds ratios (95% CIs) for prevalent obesity. In the HPFS and NHS, data were derived from the repeated-measures analysis in men (three measures from 1986 to 1998) and women (three measures from 1986 to 1998); in the WHI, data were derived from the repeated-measures in women (two measures from 1993 to 2003). Data were adjusted for age, genotyping source, physical activity (<3, 3–8.9, 9–17.9, 18–26.9, ≥ 27 MET-h/wk), Alternative Healthy Eating Index score (quintiles), total energy intake (quintiles), smoking status (never, former, current), sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (quintiles), and alcohol consumption (0, 0.1–4.9, 5–9.9, 10–14.9, ≥ 15 g/day). Results for the three cohorts were pooled by means of inverse-variance-weighted random effects meta-analysis (if P < 0.05 for heterogeneity) or fixed effects meta-analysis (if P ≥ 0.05 for heterogeneity)

Back to article page