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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of 20,605 participants in the HPFS, NHS, and WHI, according to coffee consumption

From: Habitual coffee consumption and genetic predisposition to obesity: gene-diet interaction analyses in three US prospective studies

Characteristic Coffee consumption
< 1 cup/day 1–3 cups/day > 3 cups/day
HPFSa
 Participants, n 2141 1787 1188
 Age, year 54.6 ± 9.1 54.8 ± 8.5 53.8 ± 8.0
 BMI, kg/m2 25.1 ± 4.9 25.4 ± 4.6 25.8 ± 4.4
 Coffee, cups/day 0.40 ± 0.42 2.26 ± 0.55 4.89 ± 1.14
 Physical activity, MET-h/wk 20.2 ± 26.5 19.6 ± 23.1 18.1 ± 23.4
 AHEI score 53.1 ± 11.9 52.8 ± 11.6 51.5 ± 11.9
 Total energy intake, kcal/day 1994 ± 603 2040 ± 616 2114 ± 638
 Alcohol, g/day 9.7 ± 14.7 14.4 ± 16.0 14.8 ± 18.5
 Current smokers, % 4.6 8.1 16.6
 Sugar-sweetened beverages, serving/day 1.29 ± 1.19 1.16 ± 1.00 0.98 ± 0.90
 Genetic risk score 69.3 ± 5.6 69.1 ± 5.5 69.7 ± 5.6
NHSa
 Participants, n 2679 4296 2866
 Age, year 53.8 ± 7.0 54.4 ± 6.5 53.8 ± 6.4
 BMI, kg/m2 26.3 ± 5.5 25.7 ± 4.9 25.4 ± 4.6
 Coffee, cups/day 0.42 ± 0.42 2.23 ± 0.53 4.60 ± 1.09
 Physical activity, MET-h/wk 14.0 ± 17.5 14.5 ± 19.7 13.2 ± 16.9
 AHEI score 48.8 ± 10.9 49.8 ± 10.3 49.6 ± 10.3
 Total energy intake, kcal/day 1735 ± 512 1762 ± 484 1813 ± 506
 Alcohol, g/day 4.5 ± 9.3 7.6 ± 11.0 7.7 ± 11.2
 Current smokers, % 9.1 15.2 28.4
 Sugar-sweetened beverages, serving/day 1.11 ± 0.96 1.02 ± 0.86 0.85 ± 0.78
 Genetic risk score 69.3 ± 5.6 69.5 ± 5.5 69.7 ± 5.5
WHIa
 Participants, n 951 3223 1474
 Age, year 68.4 ± 5.9 68.4 ± 5.7 67.2 ± 6.1
 BMI, kg/m2 28.9 ± 5.8 28.1 ± 5.4 28.4 ± 5.6
 Coffee, cups/day 0.32 ± 0.27 1.89 ± 0.60 4.94 ± 1.51
 Physical activity, MET-h/wk 11.9 ± 13.7 11.7 ± 13.1 10.9 ± 12.4
 AHEI score 55.7 ± 9.5 56.8 ± 9.8 54.8 ± 10.1
 Total energy intake, kcal/day 1413 ± 640 1570 ± 588 1795 ± 747
 Alcohol, g/day 3.4 ± 10.4 6.3 ± 11.3 6.9 ± 14.1
 Current smokers, % 4.5 6.6 10.9
 Sugar-sweetened beverages, serving/day 0.93 ± 0.98 1.01 ± 1.02 1.04 ± 1.44
 Genetic risk score 70.5 ± 5.7 70.4 ± 5.6 71.0 ± 5.4
  1. Plus-minus values are means ± SD
  2. aBaseline data were from 5116 men in the HPFS (1986), 9841 women in the NHS (1986), and 5648 women in the WHI (1993)
  3. AHEI Alternative Healthy Eating Index, BMI body mass index, MET-h/wk metabolic equivalent of task hours per week