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Table 4 Severity of role impairment (Sheehan Disability Scale: SDS) associated with 12-month SAD, by country

From: The cross-national epidemiology of social anxiety disorder: Data from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative

Country Proportion with severe role impairment (SDS score: 7–10) Number of 12-month cases
Home Work Relationship Social Anya
% SE % SE % SE % SE % SE
Low/lower-middle income countriesc,d,e,g 9.3 1.6 14.1 2.4 18.0 2.6 21.2 2.8 34.3 3.2 349
 Colombiac,d,e,g,h 8.1 2.3 18.1 5.2 22.5 4.9 32.3 5.0 43.2 5.3 133
 Iraqf 18.0 9.2 9.0 5.4 31.6 12.7 22.7 8.3 48.0 12.6 28
 Nigeria 7.8 7.8 28.2 15.7 24.1 13.9 24.1 13.9 36.3 17.4 9
 Peru 13.7 4.7 13.4 5.2 11.7 4.0 20.6 7.7 33.0 7.9 51
 PRC China 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 17.4 12.1 26.9 13.0 16
 PRC Shen Zhen 2.1 1.9 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.2 6.1 3.5 9.4 4.2 45
 Ukrained,h 11.5 4.1 18.4 5.6 23.1 5.8 12.2 4.7 33.0 6.4 67
Upper-middle income countriesc,d,e,f,g 12.7 1.8 17.0 2.5 28.5 2.2 28.5 2.2 39.3 2.6 601
 Brazilc,d,e,g 13.9 4.0 20.5 6.1 25.8 3.5 27.7 3.9 36.7 4.7 186
 Bulgariad,f 5.3 2.9 2.5 1.0 23.2 11.0 10.0 4.7 25.8 10.8 27
 Colombia (Medellin)c,d,e,f,g 12.5 4.0 19.8 4.6 33.5 6.1 33.6 6.0 43.2 6.1 110
 Lebanond,e,f,g 14.1 6.4 7.9 5.5 43.7 10.0 33.8 9.8 45.8 9.6 35
 Mexicod,e,f,g 7.3 2.0 11.9 3.2 23.4 3.7 28.1 4.2 35.2 4.4 134
 Romania 26.0 10.9 31.5 11.9 40.4 12.9 32.0 11.0 56.2 9.8 22
 South Africad 16.6 5.2 17.9 6.0 27.4 6.1 28.1 5.9 43.6 8.1 87
High income countriesc,d,e,f,g,h 11.0 0.7 16.8 0.8 23.6 1.0 29.8 1.1 37.7 1.1 2510
 Australiac,d,e,f,g,h 17.2 2.7 24.3 2.8 37.2 3.9 43.1 4.2 50.1 4.0 381
 Belgiumc,d,e 9.6 6.9 28.1 10.7 37.0 13.1 38.4 8.8 54.9 8.3 28
 Francee,g 9.9 5.1 11.0 4.3 17.5 4.0 24.0 5.3 32.9 5.9 72
 Germanyc,d,e,g 4.0 3.0 14.1 4.9 20.0 5.9 28.0 7.9 42.2 7.9 58
 Italyf 15.9 6.1 7.9 3.9 23.3 6.0 17.1 6.3 33.1 6.9 53
 Japanc,d 6.5 5.9 26.2 8.3 20.4 8.0 25.7 9.4 37.8 8.8 25
 New Zealandc,d,e,f,g,h 6.1 1.1 12.3 1.3 18.8 1.9 26.7 2.1 32.5 2.1 720
 Northern Irelandd,e,g,h 19.6 2.7 24.7 3.0 31.4 3.4 41.4 4.3 52.3 4.1 183
 Poland 14.2 4.6 21.3 4.8 18.6 4.5 21.4 5.2 32.4 5.6 91
 Portugalc,d,e,g 7.2 2.1 13.4 2.5 15.8 2.7 19.4 3.2 25.1 3.9 124
 Spain 8.2 5.4 15.6 7.3 21.2 9.8 17.0 8.2 26.3 10.5 33
 Spain (Murcia)c,d,e,f,g 25.8 8.9 41.7 12.7 67.2 11.0 62.4 6.8 71.6 9.4 33
 The Netherlandsc 41.9 11.2 56.8 12.7 46.8 13.9 56.1 11.1 63.6 12.0 30
 USAc,d,e,f,g,h 10.9 1.3 15.4 1.4 22.6 1.6 28.8 1.4 36.5 1.7 679
All countries combinedc,d,e,f,g,h 11.1 0.7 16.5 0.8 23.9 0.9 28.6 0.9 37.6 1.0 3460
WHO regions            
 Region of the Americasc,d,e,f,g,h 11.0 1.0 16.5 1.4 23.7 1.3 29.0 1.3 37.5 1.5 1293
 African Regiond,e 15.6 4.7 19.1 5.6 27.0 5.6 27.6 5.4 42.7 7.4 96
 Western Pacific regionc,d,e,f,g,h 8.1 1.0 14.2 1.1 21.4 1.6 28.7 1.8 34.9 1.8 1187
 Eastern Mediterranean Regiond,e,f,g 15.8 5.4 8.4 3.9 38.4 7.9 28.9 7.0 46.8 7.7 63
 Western European Regionc,d,e,f,g,h 14.4 1.7 20.2 2.0 26.7 2.0 31.4 2.2 41.7 2.4 614
 Eastern European Regionc,d,h 13.2 2.6 18.3 3.1 23.4 3.6 17.6 3.1 34.2 3.7 207
Comparison between countriesb χ2 27 = 2.3*, P < 0.001 χ2 27 = 2.9*, P < 0.001 χ2 27 = 3.0*, P < 0.001 χ2 27 = 2.8*, P < 0.001 χ2 27 = 2.6*, P < 0.001  
Comparison between low, middle, and high income country groupsb χ2 2 = 1.0, P = 0.371 χ2 2 = 0.6, P = 0.561 χ2 2 = 4.7*, P = 0.008 χ2 2 = 4.1*, P = 0.016 χ2 2 = 0.8, P = 0.463  
Comparison between WHO regionsb χ2 5 = 2.9*, P = 0.013 χ2 5 = 2.3*, P = 0.042 χ2 5 = 1.5, P = 0.180 χ2 5 = 2.7*, P = 0.020 χ2 5 = 1.5, P = 0.175  
  1. *Significant at the 0.05 level
  2. aHighest severity category across four SDS role domains
  3. bChi-square test of homogeneity to determine if there is variation in impairment severity across countries. McNemar’s chi-square test to determine if there is a significant difference for chome vs work impairment, dhome vs relationship impairment, ehome vs social impairment, fwork vs relationship impairment, gwork vs social impairment, hrelationship vs social impairment for each row entry. For example, cfor Colombia indicates that the proportion with severe impairment associated with social anxiety disorder is significantly higher for work than home