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Table 2 Mendelian randomisation studies using genetic risk scores (GRSs) to explore causality between uricaemia and cardiovascular outcomes; positive studies

From: Impact of comorbidities on gout and hyperuricaemia: an update on prevalence and treatment options

Author year [ref] GRS instrumental variable No. of participants Population Account of pleiotropy Main results
Kleber 2015 [64] 8 SNPs 3315 LURIC cohort German No pleiotropy found Association with cardiovascular mortality and sudden cardiac death
Yan 2016 [65] 17 SNPs
14 excluded
T2DM >3200 China, Cross-sectional Exclusion of 14 genes that are pleiotropic or in linkage disequilibrium Association with diabetic macro-angiopathy
  1. GRS genetic risk score, SNP single nucleotide polymorphisms, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus