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Table 2 Parasitological outcomes in peripheral blood and placenta by study area

From: Resisting and tolerating P. falciparum in pregnancy under different malaria transmission intensities

  HIV-uninfected HIV-infected
Benin Gabon Mozambique P Kenya Mozambique P
Periphery at delivery
 Smear, n (%)
  Negative 320 (92) 245 (96) 333 (98) 0.002a 332 (95) 408 (98) 0.025a
  Positive 27 (8) 11 (4) 7 (2)   17 (5) 8 (2)  
 qPCR, n (%)
  Negative 242 (69) 235 (91) 325 (96) <0.001a 326 (93) 405 (97) 0.007a
  Positive 107 (31) 22 (9) 15 (4)   25 (7) 12 (3)  
  qPCR parasites/μL, GM (SD) 280.5 (882.9) 684.2 (1703.2) 514.4 (1630.6) 0.484 141.4 (329.1) 3350.9 (9887.2) 0.003
Placenta
 Smear, n (%)
  Negative 322 (93) 244 (96) 332 (98) 0.018a 335 (95) 406 (98) 0.032a
  Positive 23 (7) 9 (4) 8 (2)   16 (5) 7 (2)  
 Histology, n (%)
  Acute 8 (2) 5 (2) 1 (0) <0.001 6 (2) 4 (1) <0.001
  Chronic 23 (7) 2 (1) 2 (1)   5 (1) 1 (0)  
  Past 37 (11) 28 (11) 13 (4)   64 (18) 14 (3)  
  No infected 277 (80) 218 (86) 322 (95)   276 (79) 387 (95)  
 qPCR, n (%)
  Negative 253 (72) 235 (91) 323 (95) <0.001a 324 (92) 407 (98) 0.001a
  Positive 96 (28) 22 (9) 17 (5)   27 (8) 10 (2)  
  qPCR parasites/μL, GM (SD) 668.5 (2473.1) 1284.9 (5100.0) 1876.2 (5910.5) 0.609 379.5 (1255.4) 5851.3 (19950.4) 0.033
Maternal microcopy infection,b n (%)
  Negative 294 (87) 239 (95) 329 (97) <0.001a 325 (93) 396 (98) 0.002a
  Positive 45 (13) 12 (5) 9 (3)   24 (7) 9 (2)  
Maternal qPCR infection,b n (%)
  Negative 206 (59) 229 (89) 319 (94) <0.001a 319 (91) 402 (96) <0.001a
  Positive 143 (41) 28 (11) 21 (6)   32 (9) 15 (4)  
  1. aThe P value is significant according to multivariate analysis adjusted for type of IPTp drug, season, age, gravidity, gestational age, anaemia, literacy, RPR result and MUAC at recruitment, as well as CD4 + T cell count in the case of HIV-positive women (Wald test) (ND for placental histology)
  2. bMaternal infections were considered microscopic if P. falciparum parasites were observed in peripheral blood at delivery or in placental blood from the maternal side either by microscopy or histology and qPCR infections if peripheral blood at delivery or placental blood samples were positive by qPCR
  3. GM geometric mean, SD standard deviation