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Table 4 Primary and secondary health outcomes reported in randomized controlled trials that (1) determined eligibility and randomized patients prior to screening and (2) provided similar management options for screened and unscreened trial arms

From: Consistency and sources of divergence in recommendations on screening with questionnaires for presently experienced health problems or symptoms: a comparison of recommendations from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, UK National Screening Committee, and US Preventive Services Task Force

First author Year Country Trial registration number Trial assessed health outcomes?a Primary health outcome(s)a,b Primary health outcomes statistically significant in favor of screening intervention? Other health outcome(s)b,c Other health outcomes statistically significant in favor of screening intervention?
Alcohol Misuse
 No randomized controlled trials of screening interventions
Depression
 Williams 1999 USA [13] Not registered Yes 1. Prevalence of depression assessed by the DIS at 3 monthsd 1. No Noned Not applicable
 Leung 2011 Hong Kong [14] NCT00251342 Yes 1. Depressive symptoms (dichotomous) measured by the EPDS at 6 months (Published)e 2. Depressive symptoms (continuous) measured by the EPDS at 6 months (Registered)e 3. Mental health symptoms (continuous) measured by the GHQ-12 at 6 months (Registered)e 1. Yes 2. Yes 3. No 1. Parental stress measured by the PSI at 6 and 18 months 2. Parental stress measured by the PSI-PD at 6 and 18 months 3. Experiencing difficult parent-child interaction measured by the PSI-PCDI at 6 and 18 months 4. Experiencing difficult child measured by the PSI-DC at 6 and 18 months 5. Marital satisfaction measured by the CKMSS score at 6 and 18 months 6. Depressive symptoms (dichotomous) measured by the EPDS at 18 months 7. Depressive symptoms (continuous) measured by the EPDS at 18 months 8. Mental health symptoms measured by the GHQ-12 at 18 months 1. No, No 2. No, No 3. No, No 4. No, No 5. No, No 6. No 7. No 8. No
Developmental Delay (CTFPHC) and Speech and Language Delay (USPSTF)
 Guevara 2013 USA [15] NCT00844246 Nof Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable
 de Koning 2004 [16]  van Agt 2007 Netherlands [17] Not registered Yes 1. Need special education at age 8g 2. Has repeated a grade by age 8g 3. Has repeated a grade due to language problems by age 8g 4. Below 10th percentile on grade 2 oral language testsg 5. Below 10th percentile on grade 2 reading testsg 6. Below 10th percentile on grade 2 spelling testsg 7. Teacher predicts normal development in futureg 1. No 2. No 3. No 4. No 5. No 6. No 7. No 1. Language comprehension measured by the VTO Language Screening Instrument at 36 monthsg 2. Language production measured by the van Wiechen items plus VTO Language Screening Instrument PQ scores at 36 monthsg 1. Noh 2. Noh
Domestic Violence (UKNSC) and Intimate Partner Violence (USPSTF)
 MacMillan 2009 Canada [18] NCT00182468 Yes 1. Recurrence of intimate partner violence measured with the CAS at 6, 12, and 18 months 2. Quality of life measured with the WHOQOL-Brief at 6, 12, and 18 months 1. No, No, No 2. No, No, No 1. Depressive symptoms measured by the CES-D at 6, 12, and 18 months 2. PTSD symptoms as measured by the SPAN at 6, 12, and 18 months 3. Alcohol abuse/dependency as measured by the TWEAK at 6, 12, and 18 months 4. Drug abuse measured by the DAST at 6, 12, and 18 months 5. Global health and well-being as measured by the SF-12 at 6, 12, and 18 months 1. No, No, No 2. No, No, No 3. No, No, No 4. No, No, No 5. No, No, No
Suicide Risk
 Crawford 2011 UK [19] ISRCTN84692657 Yes 1. Thoughts that life not worth living 10–14 days post-randomization 1. No 1. Wishing to be dead 2. Thoughts of committing suicide 1. No 2. No
  1. aHealth outcomes are outcomes that reflect patient-experienced health and well-being; receipt of healthcare services is not included
  2. bIntent-to-treat results used if both intent-to-screen and non-intent-to-screen analyses published
  3. cSecondary health outcomes do not include subgroup analyses of a subset of patients included in main analyses
  4. dAll additional outcomes were based on subgroups of patients in main analysis
  5. ePrimary outcome per trial registration was “Mother's mental health at 6 months postpartum, as measured on the EPDS and GHQ-12” without specifying method of aggregation; publication described dichotomous EPDS as the primary outcome and continuous EPDS and GHQ-12 scores as secondary outcomes
  6. fOutcomes include only diagnoses and referrals and time to diagnosis and referral, but no health outcomes
  7. gPrimary outcomes published in van Agt et al. [17] and secondary outcomes in de Koning et al. [16]
  8. hPer Table 2 in de Koning et al. [16], mean language and production scores higher for control than intervention group; all other 36-month outcomes related to diagnoses and services
  9. CAS Composite Abuse Scale, CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CKMSS Chinese Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale, DAST Drug Abuse Severity Test, DIS Diagnostic Interview Schedule, EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire –12, PSI Parenting Stress Index, PSI-DC Parenting Stress Index – Difficult Child, PSI-PCDI Parenting Stress Index – Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction, PSI-PD Parenting Stress Index – Parental Distress, PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder, PQ Parent Questionnaire, SF-12 Short Form – 12, SPAN Startle, Physiological Arousal, Anger, and Numbness, TWEAK “tolerance, worry, eye-opener, amnesia, cut down”, VTO VroegTijdige Onderkenning Ontwikkelingsstoornissen, WHOQOL-Brief World Health Organization Quality of Life – Brief