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Table 1 Public Health impact of vaccines related to health outcomes

From: The public health value of vaccines beyond efficacy: methods, measures and outcomes

Health-related evaluations of impact of vaccines Conventional evaluations Additional ‘broader’ evaluations
Methods Pre-licensure
Individually randomised controlled Phase III trials
Total and indirect effectiveness studies
Static modelling (assuming constant force of infection)
Cluster randomised controlled trials
Dynamic models
Cluster randomised trials
Probe studies
Pre/post evaluations
Observational controlled studies
Measures Efficacy and effectiveness Vaccine preventable disease incidence
Number needed to vaccinate
Outcomes Morbidity and mortality at individual level All-cause mortality
Under 5 mortality
Non-etiologically confirmed clinical syndromes