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Table 1 Public Health impact of vaccines related to health outcomes

From: The public health value of vaccines beyond efficacy: methods, measures and outcomes

Health-related evaluations of impact of vaccines Conventional evaluations Additional ‘broader’ evaluations
Methods Pre-licensure
Individually randomised controlled Phase III trials
Post-licensure
Total and indirect effectiveness studies
Static modelling (assuming constant force of infection)
Pre-licensure
Cluster randomised controlled trials
Dynamic models
Post-licensure
Cluster randomised trials
Probe studies
Pre/post evaluations
Observational controlled studies
Measures Efficacy and effectiveness Vaccine preventable disease incidence
Number needed to vaccinate
Outcomes Morbidity and mortality at individual level All-cause mortality
Under 5 mortality
Non-etiologically confirmed clinical syndromes