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Table 1 Public Health impact of vaccines related to health outcomes

From: The public health value of vaccines beyond efficacy: methods, measures and outcomes

Health-related evaluations of impact of vaccines Conventional evaluations Additional ‘broader’ evaluations
Methods Pre-licensure Individually randomised controlled Phase III trials Post-licensure Total and indirect effectiveness studies Static modelling (assuming constant force of infection) Pre-licensure Cluster randomised controlled trials Dynamic models Post-licensure Cluster randomised trials Probe studies Pre/post evaluations Observational controlled studies
Measures Efficacy and effectiveness Vaccine preventable disease incidence Number needed to vaccinate
Outcomes Morbidity and mortality at individual level All-cause mortality Under 5 mortality Non-etiologically confirmed clinical syndromes