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Table 4 The mediation role of mean arterial pressure at the time of retinal imaging in the association of gestational hypertensive disorders with retinal vascular calibers 6 years after index pregnancy (n = 3391)

From: Gestational hypertensive disorders and retinal microvasculature: the Generation R Study

  Normotensive pregnancy (n = 3183) Gestational hypertension (n = 145) Beta (95% CI) P value Pre-eclampsia (n = 63) Beta (95% CI) P value
Retinal arteriolar caliber (SDS)
 Total effect Ref –0.20 (–0.35, –0.05) 0.01 –0.41 (–0.62, –0.21) <0.001
 Direct effect Ref –0.01 (–0.14, 0.13) 0.94 –0.21 (–0.41, –0.02) 0.03
 Mediated effect Ref –0.20 (–0.26, –0.13) <0.001 –0.20 (–0.29, –0.11) <0.001
Retinal venular caliber (SDS)
 Total effect Ref 0.22 (0.08, 0.36) <0.001 0.08 (–0.09, 0.27) 0.39
 Direct effect Ref 0.16 (0.02, 0.30) 0.02 0.03 (–0.14, 0.22) 0.76
 Mediated effect Ref 0.06 (0.03, 0.09) <0.001 0.05 (0.02, 0.09) <0.001
  1. CI confidence interval, Ref reference, SDS standard deviation score, BMI body mass index
  2. Values are regression coefficients (95% CI) and are based on mediation analysis. Values are adjusted for maternal age at enrollment, ethnicity, educational level at intake, smoking at intake, and pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we adjusted for retinal venular caliber when assessing the outcome retinal arteriolar caliber and vice versa