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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with celiac disease and matched controls

From: Borrelia infection and risk of celiac disease

Characteristic Main analysisa Prospective analysisb
Matched controls Celiac disease Matched controls Celiac disease
No. of participants 78,331 15,769 78,230b 15,742b
Sex
 Male, no. (%) 28,934 (36.9) 5837 (37.0) 28,890 (36.9) 5826 (37.0)
 Female, no. (%) 49,397 (63.1) 9932 (63.0) 49,340 (63.1) 9916 (63.0)
Agec
  ≤ 19 years, no. (%) 29,510 (37.7) 5917 (37.5) 29,455 (37.7) 5900 (37.5)
 20–39 years, no. (%) 15,746 (20.1) 3167 (20.1) 15,738 (20.1) 3167 (20.1)
 40–59 years, no. (%) 17,245 (22.0) 3464 (22.0) 17,226 (22.0) 3460 (22.0)
  ≥ 60 years, no. (%) 15,830 (20.2) 3221 (20.4) 15,811 (20.2) 3215 (20.4)
Calendar periodc
 1998–2002, no. (%) 39,492 (50.4) 7956 (50.5) 39,476 (50.5) 7952 (50.5)
 2003–2008, no. (%) 38,839 (49.6) 7813 (49.5) 38,754 (49.5) 7790 (49.5)
Lyme disease, no. (%) 73 (0.09) 25 (0.16) 215 (0.27) 79 (0.50)
  1. aTo assess the risk of celiac disease following a diagnosis of Lyme disease
  2. bTo assess the risk of later Lyme disease in patients with a diagnosis of celiac disease. We excluded patients with an earlier diagnosis of Lyme disease. In addition, two celiac disease patients with potential data irregularity were excluded
  3. cAt the time of celiac disease diagnosis