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Table 3 Clinical characteristics of children with retinopathy positive (RP) or retinopathy negative (RN) cerebral malaria (CM) and children with severe malarial anemia (SMA)

From: Plasmodium falciparum EPCR-binding PfEMP1 expression increases with malaria disease severity and is elevated in retinopathy negative cerebral malaria

  RP (n = 50) RN (n = 47) SMA (n = 47) P a
Age (months), median (IQR) 40.1 (29.6–50.2) 42.0 (31.7–59.4) 33.4 (24.9–52.4) 0.23
Sex (male), n (%) 29 (58.0) 29 (61.7) 35 (74.5) 0.21
Weight-for-age z-score, mean (SD) –1.30 (1.26) n = 49 –0.92 (1.71) –1.98 (1.39) 0.002b
Hemoglobin (g/dL), mean (SD) 6.34 (2.17) 7.80 (2.21) 3.81 (0.74) <0.0001c
Parasite density (/μL), median (IQR) 100,260 (21,830–415,920) n = 48 50,690 (10,780–273,100) 43,880 (11,940–156,040) n = 46 0.17
Parasite load (PfHRP-2, ng/mL), median (IQR) 3190 (1418–5222) 2491 (446–3900) 862 (288–2033) n = 46 <0.0001d
Sequestered biomass (x10^8), median (IQR) 20,880 (11,037–44,350) n = 48 15,766 (2450–31,276) 6249 (1303–15,839) n = 45 0.0005e
  1. aAnalysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey post hoc test adjustment for multiple comparisons with log10 transformed values for variables with no normal distribution. Chi-squared test was used for sex, with P < 0.017 considered significant to control for multiple comparisons.
  2. bIn post hoc testing, SMA differed from RN
  3. cIn post hoc testing, all groups differed from each other
  4. dIn post hoc testing, SMA differed from RP and RN. For RP vs. RN, P = 0.07
  5. eIn post hoc testing, RP differed from SMA. For RP vs. RN, P = 0.08
  6. IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation