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Table 6 Assessment of ‘super-additivity’ for the 45 two-by-two possible comorbidity combinations (n = 476,252)

From: The extra cost of comorbidity: multiple illnesses and the economic burden of non-communicable diseases

  Alcohol use disorders Neurological disorders Major depression Cirrhosis Respiratory illnessb Chronic kidney disease Diabetes Cancersa Heart disease
Stroke + + + + + + +
Heart disease + + + + + + + +  
Cancersa + + + + + + +   
Diabetes + + + + + +    
Chronic kidney disease + + + +     
Respiratory illnessb + + +      
Cirrhosis + + +       
Major depression + +        
Neurological disorders +         
  1. Note: The precise assessment of ‘super-additivity’ was computed on the basis of the comparison: \( \overline{\widehat{\mathit{\cos}{t}_{d_{j\mid }{d}_k}}}+\overline{\widehat{\mathit{\cos}{t}_{d_{k\mid }{d}_j}}}<>\overline{\widehat{\mathit{\cos}{t}_{d_j}}}+\overline{\widehat{\mathit{\cos}{t}_{d_k}}} \) (3)
  2. + Left-hand side of inequality (3) is superior to the right-hand side, the assessment is ‘super-additivity’
  3. – No super additivity (left-hand side of inequality (3) lower to the right-hand side)
  4. aBreast/Lung/Colorectal/Stomach/Liver/Kidney/Pancreatic/Oesophageal
  5. bChronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma