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Table 2 Prospective studies of risk factors for postoperative mortality among older adults undergoing elective surgery

From: Identifying older adults at risk of harm following elective surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Number of patients Number of deaths Factors associated with postoperative mortality Factors not associated with postoperative mortality
N %
Audisio, 2008 [1] 460 16 3.5 Male sex (6.5% vs. 2.0%), more advanced cancer stage (P = 0.001) Age (P > 0.05)
Badgwell, 2013 [2] 111 2 2 NR No clinical, demographic, or CGA results were associated with morbidity or death
Betomvuko, 2015 [57] 94 4 4.2 Gait speed (0.68 ± 0.23 m/s vs. 0.43 ± 0.06 m/s, P = 0.037) NR
Gerude, 2014 [30] 67 3 4.5 Male sex, IADL impairment NR
Javierre, 2012 [32] 2038 74 3.6 Age (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.52–3.43) Male sex (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.56–1.56)
Kim, 2013 [51] 141 6 4.3 NR Cumulative number of impairments on CGA (OR 1.216, 95% CI 0.864–1.712, for death or post-discharge institutionalization)
Sundermann, 2014 [3] 455 28 6.1 CAF score (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.06–1.12), FORECAST score (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.5), EuroSCORE (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.03–1.1), STS score (OR 1.3 (95% CI 1.1–1.5) NR
Tamburino, 2011 [55] 663 39 5.9 Diabetes mellitus (HR 2.66, 95% CI 1.26–5.65), LVEF < 40% (HR 3.51, 95% CI 1.62–7.62) EuroSCORE (c-statistic 0.55)
Wenaweser, 2011 [56] 200 15 7.5 BMI < 20 (HR 6.60, 95% CI 1.48–29.5), stroke (HR 4.41, 95% CI 1.16–16.8) Age > 85 years (HR 1.69, 95% CI 0.17–16.5), male sex (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.32–2.52), diabetes (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.21–2.67), CHF (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.25–2.47), COPD (HR 1.35, 95% CI 0.38–4.79), hypertension (HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.34–4.24), prior MI (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.14–2.75), LVEF > 50% (HR 4.42, 95% CI 0.55–35.5), atrial fibrillation (HR 1.75, 95% CI 0.59–5.21)
Williams, 2013 [53] 148 7 4.7 NR Anxiety (OR 2.53, 95% CI 0.26–24.82)
  1. BMI body mass index, CAF comprehensive assessment of frailty, CGA comprehensive geriatric assessment, CHF congestive heart failure, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, EuroSCORE European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation, FORECAST Frailty predicts death one year after cardiac surgery test, HR hazard ratio, IADL instrumental activities of daily living, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, MI myocardial infarction, STS Society of Thoracic Surgeons, CI confidence interval, N number of patients, NR not reported, OR odds ratio