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Table 1 Characteristics of included observational studies measuring risk of ASD and ADHD with antidepressant exposure in pregnancy

From: Antidepressant use during pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: systematic review of observational studies and methodological considerations

Study [Reference] Primary study design Number of children Number of cases Case definition Data source, country (period)
Autism spectrum disorder
 Boukhris 2015 [16] Cohort 145,456 1054 ICD-9, ICD-10 Quebec pregnancy children’s cohort, Canada (1998–2009)
 Brown 2017 [25] Cohort 35,906 394 ICD-9, ICD-10 Administrative databases, Ontario, Canada (2002–2010)
 Castro 2016 [18] Case–control 4650 1245 ICD-9 Massachusetts General Hospital, USA (1997–2010)
 Clements 2015 [17] Case–control 5399 1377 ICD-9 Massachusetts General Hospital, USAa (1997–2010)
 Croen 2011 [26] Case–control 1805 298 ICD-9 Kaiser Permanente, USA (1995–1999)
 El Marroun 2014 [19] Cohort 5976 Not reported *CBCL 1.5–5, SRS Generation R study, Netherlands (2002–2006)
 Eriksson 2012 [27] Case–control 173,577 187 Clinical diagnosis Stockholm, Sweden (2002–2006)
 Gidaya 2014 [28] Case–control 57,365 5215 ICD-10 Danish Civil Registration System, Denmark (1996–2006)
 Harrington 2014 [29] Case–control 966 492 ADI-R/ADOS Charge study, USA (2003–2010)
 Hviid 2013 [30] Cohort 626,875 3892 ICD-10 Danish Civil Registration System, Denmark (1997–2005)
 Malm 2016 [31] Cohort 64,754 307 ICD-10 National registers, Finland (1996–2010)
 Rai 2013 [32] Case–control 47,706 4429 ICD-9, ICD-10 Regional administrative registries, Sweden (2001–2007)
 Sorensen 2013 [33] Cohort 655,615 5437 ICD-8, ICD-10 Danish Civil Registration System, Denmark (1996–2006)
 Sujan 2017 [34] Cohort 1,580,629 14,617 ICD-9, ICD-10 National administrative registries, Sweden (1996–2012)
 Viktorin 2017 [35] Cohort 179,007 1641 ICD-10 National administrative registries, Sweden (2006–2007)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
 Castro 2016 [18] Case–control 5498 1701 ICD-9 Massachusetts General Hospital, USA (1997–2010)
 Clements 2015 [17] Case–control 7874 2243 ICD-9 Massachusetts General Hospital, USAa (1997–2010)
 Figueroa 2010 [36] Case–control 38,572 431 ICD-9 Marketscan, USA (1997–2006)
 Laugesen 2013 [37] Cohort 877,778 12,841 ICD-8, ICD-10 Danish Civil Registration System, Denmark (1996–2009)
 Malm 2016 [31] Cohort 64,754 514 ICD-10 National registers, Finland (1996–2010)
 Man 2017 [38] Cohort 190,618 5659 ICD-9 Clinical Data Analysis & Reporting System, Hong Kong (2001–2009)
 Sujan 2017 [34] Cohort 1,580,629 32,924 ICD-9, ICD-10 National administrative registries, Sweden (1996–2012)
  1. *Parent-reported autistic symptoms assessed using: CBCL 1.5–5, the pervasive developmental problems subscale of the Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5–5, and SRS, the Social Responsiveness Scale
  2. “Clinical diagnosis” indicates receiving intervention for ASD at a specialised Autism Centre for Young Children
  3. ADI-R Autism Diagnostic Interview, Revised, ADOS Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ICD International Classification of Disease coding system
  4. aNew, independent cohort