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Table 1 Characteristics at a low geographical area (LSOA) across England and each of its ten regions*

From: Chronic morbidity, deprivation and primary medical care spending in England in 2015-16: a cross-sectional spatial analysis

  England North East North West Yorkshire and Humber East Midlands West Midlands East of England London South East South Central South West
Aggregates across LSOAs
 Number of LSOAs 32844 1657 4497 3317 2774 3487 3614 4835 2773 2609 3281
 Total population 54316618 2618710 7132991 5360027 4637413 5713284 6018383 8538689 4594865 4278953 5423303
 Percentage rural 17.0 17.6 9.8 16.5 25.4 14.8 28.3 0.2 20.1 19.8 30.2
Medians (25th and 75th centiles) across LSOAs
 CMI** 0.51 (0.45,0.57) 0.59 (0.54,0.62) 0.55 (0.51,0.59) 0.54 (0.50,0.58) 0.54 (0.50,0.58) 0.53 (0.50,0.57) 0.50 (0.46,0.54) 0.38 (0.34,0.42) 0.49 (0.44,0.55) 0.46 (0.42,0.51) 0.54 (0.50,0.59)
 Per patient cost A 134.6 (124.3,150.0) 136.7 (129.9,146.8) 133.6 (124.2,146.0) 146.8 (133.3,164.6) 141.2 (130.2,161.1) 137.1 (127.8,151.3) 129.7 (118.1,162.2) 129.8 (121.7,140.0) 128.1 (118.0,142.5) 126.3 (118.1,140.3) 138.2 (128.7,156.8)
 Per patient cost B 133.7 (123.5,148.0) 135.5 (129.0,145.8) 132.7 (123.6,145.0) 145.7 (132.5,162.8) 140.1 (129.4,158.4) 136.1 (127.0,149.0) 128.3 (117.3,156.2) 129.4 (121.3,139.6) 126.8 (117.0,140.3) 125.4 (117.4,138.4) 137.1 (128.1,152.9)
 Per patient cost C 126.6 (118.0,137.1) 130.3 (124.1,139.1) 127.6 (119.1,139.0) 137.3 (126.0,150.0) 131.3 (123.3,139.7) 128.8 (121.4,139.0) 119.7 (111.0,130.7) 126.1 (117.8,136.3) 118.9 (110.7,129.0) 119.0 (112.2,126.9) 128.0 (121.4,135.6)
 Adjusted per patient cost A§ 141.4 (129.3,159.0) 142.7 (134.0,154.2) 140.0 (129.1,154.5) 154.1 (138.7,173.3) 148.5 (136.3,170.0) 143.9 (133.2,160.5) 138.2 (124.0,168.4) 139.0 (128.3,153.5) 133.1 (121.2,147.7) 131.7 (122.2,146.5) 143.5 (132.4,163.0)
 Adjusted per patient cost B†§ 140.4 (128.4,156.9) 141.5 (133.1,152.8) 139.1 (128.3,153.4) 152.8 (138.0,171.3) 147.1 (135.4,165.8) 142.7 (132.4,158.7) 136.3 (122.9,162.8) 138.5 (127.7,153.0) 131.8 (120.2,145.6) 130.7 (121.3,144.5) 142.2 (131.5,158.8)
 Adjusted per patient cost C‡§ 132.4 (122.1,144.7) 135.8 (127.8,145.3) 133.5 (123.3,146.6) 142.5 (130.0,157.8) 136.7 (127.8,147.2) 134.9 (126.3,146.8) 125.6 (115.4,137.6) 135.0 (124.1,149.6) 123.1 (113.7,133.3) 123.5 (115.7,133.4) 132.2 (123.5,141.1)
 IMD 17.4 (9.7,30.1) 23.2 (11.7,38.2) 21.6 (11.0,39.5) 19.8 (11.0,36.9) 16.4 (9.3,29.0) 20.2 (11.4,36.0) 14.5 (8.4,23.0) 22.1 (13.3,32.7) 12.7 (7.3,20.9) 10.7 (5.7,19.3) 15.2 (9.3,23.4)
 Percentage female 51.0 (49.8,52.1) 51.3 (50.1,52.4) 51.0 (49.9,52.2) 51.1 (49.9,52.2) 50.9 (49.9,52.0) 50.8 (49.8,51.9) 51.0 (50.0,52.0) 50.8 (49.2,52.1) 51.2 (50.1,52.3) 50.8 (49.7,51.9) 51.2 (50.0,52.3)
 Percentage aged 30–59 39.9 (37.4,42.5) 39.4 (37.1,41.6) 39.4 (37.2,41.8) 39.4 (37.0,41.8) 39.5 (37.2,41.8) 38.7 (36.6,40.9) 39.8 (37.4,42.3) 43.0 (40.4,46.3) 39.9 (37.2,42.6) 40.7 (38.0,43.4) 38.5 (36.1,40.9)
 Percentage aged 60 or over 23.1 (16.6,29.8) 24.8 (19.8,30.7) 23.5 (18.0,29.8) 23.9 (17.9,29.9) 25.3 (18.4,31.1) 23.7 (17.7,30.4) 24.7 (18.4,31.1) 14.8 (11.3,19.5) 25.2 (19.4,31.1) 23.1 (16.2,29.4) 27.8 (20.3,34.2)
 Percentage white British 91.0 (75.3,95.6) 96.8 (94.1,97.9) 94.1 (87.8,96.4) 94.4 (86.1,96.5) 93.7 (83.3,96.2) 89.7 (74.3,95.2) 90.2 (82.1,94.7) 44.4 (28.8,62.0) 90.2 (83.6,93.7) 89.2 (79.1,93.7) 94.8 (91.0,96.5)
  1. IMD Index of Multiple Deprivation, LSOA Lower Layer Super Output Area
  2. * Variables, in general, reported for the 2015 calendar year, except morbidity (chronic morbidity index, fiscal year 2014/15), costs (fiscal year 2015-16), ethnicity (2011 census)
  3. ** Chronic morbidity index, 2014/15
  4. † Minus prescription and dispensing costs
  5. ‡ Minus prescription and dispensing costs and drug reimbursement
  6. § Adjusted for under- and, especially, over-registration using 2015 LSOA population estimates
  7. ¶ Index of Multiple Deprivation, details available in the 2015 technical report of the English Indices of Deprivation [23]