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Table 2 Traumatic experiences in home country/during flight

From: Near-death experiences, attacks by family members, and absence of health care in their home countries affect the quality of life of refugee women in Germany: a multi-region, cross-sectional, gender-sensitive study

  Experienced myself Witnessed Heard about it None
Natural catastrophe (n = 651) 148 (22.7%) 40 (6.1%) 116 (17.8%) 357 (54.8%)
Severe accident (n = 655) 194 (29.6%) 145 (22.1%) 157 (24%) 178 (27.2%)
Life-threatening illness (n = 652) 73 (11.2%) 125 (19.2%) 113 (17.3%) 347 (53.2%)
Serious injury (n = 647) 83 (12.8%) 163 (25.2%) 115 (17.8%) 312 (48%)
Near-death experience (n = 649) 265 (40.8%) 109 (16.8%) 88 (13.5%) 216 (33.3%)
Hunger or thirst (n = 652) 302 (46.3%) 41 (6.3%) 85 (13.7%) 231 (35.4%)
Homelessness (n = 650) 335 (51.5%) 62 (9.5%) 68 (10.5%) 217 (33.4%)
No access to medical care (n = 649) 233 (35.9%) 76 (11.7%) 66 (10.2%) 298 (45.9%)
Mission/residence in war zone (n = 648) 355 (54.8%) 50 (7.7%) 59 (9.1%) 196 (30.3%)
Aggression from family member (n = 652) 121 (18.6%) 42 (6.4%) 57 (8.7%) 439 (67.3%)
Aggression from stranger (n = 653) 144 (22.1%) 64 (9.8%) 88 (13.5%) 373 (57%)
Imprisonment (n = 649) 85 (13.1%) 64 (9.9%) 145 (22.3%) 357 (55%)
Forced isolation (n = 636) 97 (15.3%) 28 (4.4%) 66 (10.4%) 446 (70.1%)
Brain washing (n = 641) 28 (4.4%) 10 (1.6%) 59 (9.2%) 546 (85.2%)
Torture (n = 647) 91 (14.1%) 52 (8%) 134 (20.7%) 384 (59.4%)
Sexual aggression from family member (n = 647) 33 (5.1%) 14 (2.2%) 52 (8%) 548 (84.7%)
Sexual aggression from stranger (n = 644) 54 (8.4%) 22 (3.4%) 101 (15.7%) 470 (73%)
Sexual contact as a minor (n = 646) 77 (11.9%) 12 (1.9%) 62 (9.6%) 499 (77.2%)
Forced separation from family (n = 646) 203 (31.4%) 20 (3.1%) 35 (5.4%) 390 (60.4%)
Killing of family member or friend (n = 646) 170 (26.3%) 77 (11.9%) 165 (25.5%) 258 (39.9%)
Unnatural death of family member (n = 646) 175 (27.1%) 66 (10.2%) 157 (24.3%) 258 (39.9%)
Killing of one or more strangers (n = 641) 78 (12.2%) 98 (15.3%) 234 (36.5%) 244 (38.1%)
Disappearance or kidnapping (n = 650) 92 (14.2%) 64 (9.9%) 236 (36.3%) 260 (40%)
Perpetrator of injury or death myself (n = 646) 23 (3.6%) 13 (2%) 15 (2.3%) 592 (91.6%)
  1. Multiple answers were admitted