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Table 2 Biological parameters measured at pre- and post-intervention and mean change

From: Fatty fish intake and cognitive function: FINS-KIDS, a randomized controlled trial in preschool children

  Fish group (n = 105) Meat group (n = 113)  
Biological parameters No., n Pre Mean (SD) Post Mean (SD) Change Mean (SD) p a No., n Pre Mean (SD) Post Mean (SD) Change Mean (SD) p a p b
Sum FA, mg/g 95 2.22 (0.30) 2.22 (0.27) 0.00 (0.40) 0.10 103 2.20 (0.24) 2.24 (0.24) 0.04 (0.26) 0.13 0.39
Sum SFA, mg/g 95 0.85 (0.10) 0.85 (0.09) 0.00 (0.14) 0.93 103 0.84 (0.08) 0.86 (0.10) 0.02 (0.10) 0.015 0.15
Sum MUFA, mg/g 95 0.45 (0.13) 0.44 (0.06) −0.01 (0.14) 0.53 103 0.44 (0.09) 0.44 (0.07) 0.00 (0.09) 0.90 0.55
Sum PUFA, mg/g 95 0.84 (0.10) 0.85 (0.12) 0.01 (0.15) 0.41 103 0.83 (0.12) 0.85 (0.10) 0.02 (0.14) 0.21 0.82
LA, 18:2n-6, mg/g 95 0.25 (0.04) 0.26 (0.06) 0.01 (0.07) 0.39 103 0.25 (0.07) 0.25 (0.04) 0.00 (0.07) 0.59 0.33
AA, 20:4n-6, mg/g 95 0.29 (0.04) 0.28 (0.04) −0.01 (0.05) 0.0290 103 0.29 (0.05) 0.30 (0.04) 0.01 (0.05) 0.0151 0.0011
EPA, 20:5n-3, mg/g 95 0.02 (0.01) 0.03 (0.01) 0.01 (0.01) < 0.0001 103 0.02 (0.01) 0.02 (0.01) 0.00 (0.01) 0.38 < 0.0001
DPA, 22:5n-3, mg/g 95 0.04 (0.01) 0.04 (0.01) 0.00 (0.01) 0.46 103 0.04 (0.01) 0.04 (0.01) 0.00 (0.01) 0.12 0.63
DHA, 22:6n-3, mg/g 95 0.14 (0.03) 0.16 (0.04) 0.02 (0.03) < 0.0001 103 0.14 (0.03) 0.14 (0.03) 0.00 (0.03) 0.15 0.0038
EPA, 20:5n-3, % 95 0.93 (0.46) 1.22 (0.51) 0.29 (0.40) < 0.0001 103 0.88 (0.36) 0.90 (0.43) 0.02 (0.35) 0.57 < 0.0001
DHA, 22:6n-3, % 95 6.46 (1.20) 7.15 (1.30) 0.69 (1.03) < 0.0001 103 6.39 (1.10) 6.41 (1.12) 0.02 (1.05) 0.68 < 0.0001
Omega-3 indexc 95 7.38 (1.56) 8.37 (1.69) 0.99 (1.30) < 0.0001 103 7.27 (1.33) 7.34 (1.43) 0.07 (1.27) 0.58 < 0.0001
s-25(OH)D3, nmol/L 92 62.4 (14.2) 69.8 (18.0) 7.4 (15.6) < 0.0001 103 60.0 (13.8) 65.8 (15.8) 5.8 (10.8) < 0.0001 0.39
s-Ferritin, μg/L 84 33.0 (21.6) 26.8 (12.7) −6.2 (18.2) 0.0024 94 28.3 (16.7) 30.8 (20.3) 2.5 (17.4) 0.16 0.0013
UIC, μg/L 96 160.7 (94.6) 143.5 (69.4) −17.2 (87.0) 0.06 104 151.1 (95.1) 123.6 (62.9) −27.5 (95.5) 0.0041 0.43
  1. Abbreviations: AA arachidonic acid, DHA docosahexaenoic acid, DPA docosapentaenoic acid, EPA eicosapentaenoic acid, FA fatty acids, LA linoleic acid, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids, SFA saturated fatty acids, SD standard deviation, UIC urinary iodine concentration, 25(OH)D 3 25-hydroxyvitamin D3
  2. ap for comparison within the intervention groups, paired samples t test
  3. bp for comparison between the intervention groups, independent samples t test
  4. cThe content of EPA and DHA expressed as percentage of total fatty acids. All fatty acids are measured in red blood cells