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Table 2 Effect sizes and distribution of behavioural and emotional scores between those with and without acute seizures

From: Prevalence, risk factors and behavioural and emotional comorbidity of acute seizures in young Kenyan children: a population-based study

  Median scores (IQR)   Mean scores (SD)   
Behavioural and emotional scores Number without seizures (N = 3073) Acute seizures (N = 200) p valuea Number of acute seizures(N = 3073) Acute seizures (N = 200) p valueb Cohen’s d (95% CI)
Total 27 (18–41) 35 (22–62) <0.001 33.0 (22.5) 43.2 (27.1) <0.001 0.44 (0.30–0.59)
Internalising 8 (4–13) 11 (6–20) <0.001 10.0 (8.4) 13.8 (10.5) <0.001 0.44 (0.29–0.58)
Externalising 9 (5–14) 12 (6–19) <0.001 10.7 (7.7) 13.6 (8.9) <0.001 0.38 (0.24–0.52)
CBCL syndromes
 Emotionally reactive 2 (1–3) 2 (1–5) 0.009 2.3 (2.4) 3.0 (3.1) 0.002 0.27 (0.13–0.41)
 Anxious or depressed 2 (0–4) 3 (1–7) <0.001 2.8 (2.7) 4.1 (3.6) <0.001 0.43 (0.28–0.57)
 Somatic problems 2 (1–4) 4 (2–6) <0.001 3.0 (2.6) 4.3 (3.5) <0.001 0.47 (0.32–0.62)
 Withdrawn 1 (0–3) 2 (1–4) 0.009 1.9 (2.1) 2.4 (2.4) 0.001 0.24 (0.10–0.38)
 Sleep problems 2 (1–3) 2 (1–4) <0.001 2.2 (2.2) 2.9 (2.5) <0.001 0.32 (0.17–0.46)
 Attention problems 3 (2–5) 4 (2–5) 0.002 3.4 (2.1) 3.8 (2.1) 0.002 0.23 (0.08–0.37)
 Aggressive behaviour 6 (3–10) 8 (4–15) <0.001 7.3 (6.5) 9.8 (7.5) <0.001 0.38 (0.24–0.52)
DSM-oriented scales
 Affective problems 1 (0–3) 2 (1–4) <0.001 1.9 (2.4) 3.0 (2.9) <0.001 0.43 (0.28–0.57)
 Anxiety problems 4 (2–6) 5 (2–8) <0.001 4.4 (3.5) 5.6 (4.0) <0.001 0.32 (0.18–0.47)
 Pervasive developmental problems 2 (1–4) 3 (2–5) 0.004 3.1 (2.9) 3.7 (3.3) 0.005 0.20 (0.06–0.35)
 Attention deficit or hyperactivity problems 5 (3–7) 6 (4–8) 0.004 5.4 (2.9) 6.0 (3.0) 0.003 0.22 (0.07–0.36)
 Oppositional defiant problems 2 (0–3) 3 (1–4) <0.001 2.2 (2.3) 2.9 (2.4) <0.001 0.32 (0.18–0.46)
  1. All p values > 0.01 are reported to 2 decimal places, while those <0.01 are reported to 3 decimal places
  2. aMann–Whitney U test comparison of median behavioural and emotional scores
  3. bStudent’s t-test comparison of behavioural and emotional scores
  4. CI confidence interval, IQR interquartile range, DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, SD standard deviation
  5. Effect sizes were a function of mean scores and standard deviation
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