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Table 2 Odds ratios for autonomic dysreflexia during urodynamics

From: Prediction of autonomic dysreflexia during urodynamics: a prospective cohort study

Variable Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p value
Sex
 Malea 1   1  
 Female 2.1 (1.0–5.1) 0.070 2.0 (0.9–4.9) 0.101
Stage of SCIb
 Acute 1.2 (0.7–2.1) 0.600 0.8 (0.4–1.7) 0.622
 Chronica 1   1  
AIS
 A 0.9 (0.5–1.6) 0.719 1.4 (0.7–2.9) 0.700
 B 1.2 (0.6–2.6) 0.646 1.7 (0.7–4.3) 0.360
 C 1.0 (0.5–2.3) 0.939 1.2 (0.5–2.9) 0.850
 Da 1   1  
Complete vs. incomplete SCI
 AIS A–B 0.9 (0.5–1.4) 0.510 1.1 (0.7–2.0) 0.657
 AIS C–Da 1   1  
Motor complete vs. incomplete SCI
 AIS A 1.0 (0.6 – 1.6) 0.880 1.4 (0.8 – 2.6) 0.250
 AIS B-Da 1   1  
Lesion level, cutoff at T6
 At or above T6 5.5 (3.2–9.4) < 0.001 6.6 (3.8–11.7) < 0.001
 T7 and belowa 1   1  
Lesion level, distributions above T7
 C1–C4 13.9 (5.2–48.8) < 0.001 16.2 (5.9–57.9) < 0.001
 C5–C8 8.5 (3.5–23.8) < 0.001 12.2 (4.9–35.8) < 0.001
 T1–T3 4.3 (1.8–11.7) 0.002 5.2 (2.1–14.5) 0.001
 T4–T6 2.4 (1.3–4.7) 0.007 2.6 (1.3–5.2) 0.006
 T7 and belowa 1   1  
Presence of NDO during UDIc
 Yes 2.7 (1.4–4.9) 0.002 2.2 (1.1–4.5) 0.030
 Noa 1   1  
  1. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) for the categorical variables against its own reference category are highlighted in bold
  2. All values are presented as OR (95% CI)
  3. Bivariate logistic regression analysis between AD and each categorical variable resulted in crude OR. Multivariate logistic regression analysis between AD and all categorical variables including age (as a continuous variable) in one model resulted in adjusted OR
  4. aReference category
  5. bSCI defined as “acute” upon 300 days since injury and “chronic” after 300 days according to the European Multicenter Study about Spinal Cord Injury (EMSCI, www.emsci.org)
  6. cIndicating the worse of two same session UDIs
  7. AD autonomic dysreflexia, AIS American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale, C cervical, CI confidence interval, NDO neurogenic detrusor overactivity, OR odds ratio, SCI spinal cord injury, T thoracic, UDI urodynamic investigation