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Table 3 Impact of being high-risk opioid users and its magnitude on prospective medical utilization

From: Healthcare costs and utilization associated with high-risk prescription opioid use: a retrospective cohort study

  Top 5% total cost Top 5% drug cost Any hospitalization Any emergency visit
Crude odds ratio (without covariates) – binary indicator
 Chronic users 4.07**
(3.68–4.50)
13.58**
(12.55–14.70)
2.61**
(2.35–2.91)
1.68**
(1.54–1.82)
 Concomitant users 3.92**
(3.69–4.16)
5.97**
(5.65–6.31)
2.96**
(2.78–3.14)
2.06**
(1.96–2.15)
 Opioid disorder 2.92**
(2.54–3.35)
3.63**
(3.19–4.13)
3.44**
(3.04–3.88)
2.31**
(2.09–2.55)
Adjusted odds ratio (with covariates and weighting) – binary indicator
 Chronic users 1.41**
(1.20–1.66)
4.97**
(4.31–5.74)
1.03
(0.87–1.20)
1.00
(0.89–1.14)
 Concomitant users 1.18**
(1.08–1.29)
1.61**
(1.48–1.75)
1.09*
(1.00–1.19)
1.13**
(1.06–1.21)
 Opioid disorder 1.20
(0.95–1.50)
1.65**
(1.32–2.06)
0.94
(0.78–1.13)
1.03
(0.88–1.21)
Crude odds ratio (one level/count increase in magnitude/membership: 0–3)
 Magnitude of chronic users 1.79**
(1.71–1.87)
3.07**
(2.96–3.19)
1.47**
(1.40–1.54)
1.24**
(1.19–1.29)
 Magnitude of concomitant users 1.76**
(1.72–1.81)
2.15**
(2.10–2.20)
1.57**
(1.53–1.61)
1.36**
(1.33–1.39)
 Magnitude of opioid disorder 1.52**
(1.43–1.62)
1.71**
(1.61–1.81)
1.65**
(1.56–1.74)
1.37**
(1.31–1.44)
 Count of high-risk group membership 2.62**
(2.52–2.73)
4.14**
(3.98–4.30)
2.20**
(2.11–2.29)
1.69**
(1.64–1.75)
Adjusted odds ratio (with covariates; one level/count increase in magnitude/membership: 0–3)
 Magnitude of chronic users 1.18**
(1.11–1.25)
2.53**
(2.41–2.67)
0.97
(0.92–1.03)
1.01
(0.97–1.06)
 Magnitude of concomitant users 1.06**
(1.03–1.10)
1.27**
(1.23–1.31)
1.00
(0.97–1.04)
1.05**
(1.03–1.08)
 Magnitude of opioid disorder 1.12*
(1.02–1.24)
1.27**
(1.16–1.39)
1.11*
(1.02–1.10)
0.99
(0.93–1.06)
 Count of high-risk group membership 1.17**
(1.10–1.25)
2.22**
(2.09–2.35)
1.02
(0.96–1.08)
1.08**
(1.03–1.13)
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01