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Table 1 List of environmental and socio-demographic covariates

From: Spatio-temporal mapping of Madagascar’s Malaria Indicator Survey results to assess Plasmodium falciparum endemicity trends between 2011 and 2016

Covariate Description Dynamic Round 1 selection Round 2 selection Source
Accessibility Distance to cities with population >50,000 Static Yes Yes Nelson [18]
AI Aridity index Static Yes Yes World Clim [23]
DistToWater GIS-derived surface that measures distance to permanent and semi-permanent water based on presence of lakes, wetlands, rivers and streams, and accounting for slope and precipitation Static Yes Yes MAP (from WWF surfaces [21, 22])
Elevation Elevation as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Static Yes Yes SRTM derivative [19]
PET Potential evapotranspiration Static Yes Yes Trabucco & Zomer [23]
Slope GIS-derived surface calculated from SRTM elevation surface Static Yes Yes MAP (from SRTM [19])
Stable_Lights_2010 Index that measures the presence of lights from towns, cities and other sites with persistent lighting Static Yes Yes NOAA [16]
TWI Topographic wetness index Static Yes Yes MAP (from SRTM [19])
Population size Estimated population per 1 km × 1 km pixel Annual Yes   Linard et al. [24]
EVI Enhanced vegetation index Monthly Lag 0, 3 Lag 3 MODIS derivative [31]
LST_day Daytime land surface temperature Monthly    MODIS derivative [30]
LST_delta Diurnal difference in land surface temperature Monthly Lag 0, 1, 2, 3 Lag 0, 1, 2, 3 MODIS derivative [30]
LST_night Night-time land surface temperature Monthly    MODIS derivative [30]
TCB Tasselled cap brightness; measure of land reflectance Monthly Lag 0, 2 Lag 2 MODIS derivative [32]
TCW Tasselled cap wetness Monthly Lag 3 Lag 3 MODIS derivative [32]
TSI Temperature suitability index Monthly Lag 0, 1, 2, 3   MAP [26]
CHIRPS Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Station Data Monthly Lag 0, 1, 2, 3 Lag 0, 1, 3 CHIRPS [25]
  1. CHIRPS Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Station Data, GIS geographic information system, MAP Malaria Atlas Project, MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, WWF World Wildlife Fund