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Table 3 Risk of bias in randomized controlled trials

From: Efficacy, effectiveness and safety of vaccination against human papillomavirus in males: a systematic review

Study

Random sequence generation

Allocation concealment

Blinding of participants and personnel

Blinding of outcome assessment

Incomplete outcome data

Selective reporting

Other bias

Giuliano et al. 2011 [32]

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Palefsky et al. 2011 [33]

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Coskuner et al. 2014 [31]a

+

+

+

+

+

NCT01461096 [26]

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

  1. + low risk of bias, − high risk of bias
  2. aControls received no vaccination, yet blinding was not possible