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Table 3 Risk of bias in randomized controlled trials

From: Efficacy, effectiveness and safety of vaccination against human papillomavirus in males: a systematic review

Study Random sequence generation Allocation concealment Blinding of participants and personnel Blinding of outcome assessment Incomplete outcome data Selective reporting Other bias
Giuliano et al. 2011 [32] + + + + + + +
Palefsky et al. 2011 [33] + + + + + + +
Coskuner et al. 2014 [31]a + + + + +
NCT01461096 [26] + + + + + + +
  1. + low risk of bias, − high risk of bias
  2. aControls received no vaccination, yet blinding was not possible