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Table 5 Efficacy or effectiveness of vaccination against human papillomavirus in males: infections in participants irrespective of their HPV status at enrolment

From: Efficacy, effectiveness and safety of vaccination against human papillomavirus in males: a systematic review

Study Design No. of events/no. of participants Unadjusted estimate (95% CI) Confounder-adjusted estimate (95% CI) VE (95% CI)
Vaccine Control
Incident anogenital infection
HPV 16
  Giuliano et al. 2011 [32]a RCT 189/4070.0 pyrs 259/4014.2 pyrs NR NA 28.0% (12.9–40.7%)
HPV 18
  Giuliano et al. 2011 [32]a RCT 89/4205.4 pyrs 133/4151.5 pyrs NR NA 33.9% (13.0–50.1%)
Persisting anogenital infection
HPV 16
  Giuliano et al. 2011 [32]a RCT 71/4199.5 pyrs 131/4112.7 pyrs NR NA 46.9% (28.6–60.8%)
HPV 18
  Giuliano et al. 2011 [32]a RCT 25/4267.0 pyrs 56/4210.1 pyrs NR NA 56.0% (28.8–73.7%)
Incident anal infection
HPV 16
  Palefsky et al. 2011 [33]a RCT 40/615.7 pyrs 71/599.9 pyrs NR NA 45.1% (18.0–63.7%)
HPV 18
  Palefsky et al. 2011 [33]a RCT 20/651.2 pyrs 39/641.3 pyrs NR NA 49.5% (11.3–72.1%)
Persisting anal infection
HPV 16
  Palefsky et al. 2011 [33]a RCT 24/636.6 pyrs 51/622.3 pyrs NR NA 54% (23.9–72.9%)
HPV 18
  Palefsky et al. 2011 [33]a RCT 7/668.4 pyrs 26/656.3 pyrs NR NA 73.6% (37.5–90.3%)
Incident oral infection
HPV 16 and/or HPV 18
  Kahn et al. 2015 [24]a Cross-sectional study 0/23 9/48 NR NR 91% (−59–99.5%)
Persisting oral infection
 NCT01461096 [26]b RCT 1/236 8/236 0.12 (0.02–0.98)c NR 88% (2–98%)
  1. NA not applicable, NR not reported, pyrs person-years, VE vaccine efficacy or effectiveness
  2. aVE as reported in the primary study
  3. bVE calculated from unadjusted estimate
  4. cHazard ratio (95% CI)