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Table 5 Efficacy or effectiveness of vaccination against human papillomavirus in males: infections in participants irrespective of their HPV status at enrolment

From: Efficacy, effectiveness and safety of vaccination against human papillomavirus in males: a systematic review

Study

Design

No. of events/no. of participants

Unadjusted estimate (95% CI)

Confounder-adjusted estimate (95% CI)

VE (95% CI)

Vaccine

Control

Incident anogenital infection

HPV 16

  Giuliano et al. 2011 [32]a

RCT

189/4070.0 pyrs

259/4014.2 pyrs

NR

NA

28.0% (12.9–40.7%)

HPV 18

  Giuliano et al. 2011 [32]a

RCT

89/4205.4 pyrs

133/4151.5 pyrs

NR

NA

33.9% (13.0–50.1%)

Persisting anogenital infection

HPV 16

  Giuliano et al. 2011 [32]a

RCT

71/4199.5 pyrs

131/4112.7 pyrs

NR

NA

46.9% (28.6–60.8%)

HPV 18

  Giuliano et al. 2011 [32]a

RCT

25/4267.0 pyrs

56/4210.1 pyrs

NR

NA

56.0% (28.8–73.7%)

Incident anal infection

HPV 16

  Palefsky et al. 2011 [33]a

RCT

40/615.7 pyrs

71/599.9 pyrs

NR

NA

45.1% (18.0–63.7%)

HPV 18

  Palefsky et al. 2011 [33]a

RCT

20/651.2 pyrs

39/641.3 pyrs

NR

NA

49.5% (11.3–72.1%)

Persisting anal infection

HPV 16

  Palefsky et al. 2011 [33]a

RCT

24/636.6 pyrs

51/622.3 pyrs

NR

NA

54% (23.9–72.9%)

HPV 18

  Palefsky et al. 2011 [33]a

RCT

7/668.4 pyrs

26/656.3 pyrs

NR

NA

73.6% (37.5–90.3%)

Incident oral infection

HPV 16 and/or HPV 18

  Kahn et al. 2015 [24]a

Cross-sectional study

0/23

9/48

NR

NR

91% (−59–99.5%)

Persisting oral infection

 NCT01461096 [26]b

RCT

1/236

8/236

0.12 (0.02–0.98)c

NR

88% (2–98%)

  1. NA not applicable, NR not reported, pyrs person-years, VE vaccine efficacy or effectiveness
  2. aVE as reported in the primary study
  3. bVE calculated from unadjusted estimate
  4. cHazard ratio (95% CI)