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Table 1 Participant characteristics, malaria parameters, iron markers and delivery outcomes

From: Iron deficiency during pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of adverse birth outcomes in a malaria-endemic area in a longitudinal cohort study

Variable Mean [SD], range; or median {IQR}, range; or N (%)
Participant characteristics at enrolment1
 Maternal age, years (N = 268) 24 [17], 16–49
 Mid upper arm circumference, cm (N = 270) 22.4 [1.8], 12–30
 Primigravidae 106/279 (38)
 Estimated gestational age, weeks (N = 276) 25.3 [4.2], 7–36
 Education  
  None or primary 154/275 (56)
  Secondary+ 121/275 (44)
 Current smoker (yes) 56/278 (20)
 Used bed net last night (yes) 200/264 (76)
 Clinical history of fever, chills or headache in past 7 days (yes) 67/276 (24)
 Palpable spleen (yes) 51/262 (19)
Malariometrics and iron status at enrolment
Plasmodium spp. infection detectable by PCR 185/279 (66)
Plasmodium spp. infection2 98/279 (35)
  P. falciparum 93/279 (33)
  P. vivax 9/279 (3)
 Haemoglobin, g/dL (N = 279) 8.5 [1.4], 5.3–12.8
 Ferritin, μg/L (N = 279) 8.2 {4.6–17.5}, 2.4–121.3
 Iron deficient (ferritin < 15 μg/L) 199/279 (71)
 CRP, mg/L (N = 258)3 5.15 {1.80–11.72}, 0.18–255.65
 High CRP (> 10 mg/L) 90/279 (32)
Malariometric and birth outcomes at delivery
 Placental Plasmodium spp. infection2 39/223 (17)
  P. falciparum 34/223 (15)
  P. vivax 6/223 (3)
Plasmodium spp. infection2 37/274 (13)
  P. falciparum 31/274 (11)
  P. vivax 6/274 (2)
 Haemoglobin, g/dL (N = 270) 9.2 [1.7], 4.7–14.2
 Birth weight, grams (N = 279) 2857 [452], 1400–4500
 Low birth weight (< 2500 g) 47/279 (17)
 Gestational age at delivery, weeks (N = 279) 38 {37–40}, 28–42
 Preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation) 62/279 (22)
  1. 1N = 279
  2. 2Plasmodium spp. infection detectable by light microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films, unless otherwise specified. Four women had a mixed infection at enrolment (P. falciparum and P. vivax), one woman had mixed placental infection and one woman had mixed peripheral infection at delivery
  3. 321 measurements were outside the assay standard curve so were excluded from the CRP concentration descriptive analysis but classified as >10 mg/L for high CRP descriptive analysis
  4. CRP C-reactive protein, IQR interquartile range, PCR polymerase chain reaction, SD standard deviation