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Table 1 Characteristics of participants with COPD aged 40–79 by race and ethnicity, U.S. NHANES 2007–2012 and Korea NHANES 2007–2015a

From: Racial differences in comorbidity profile among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  U.S. NHANES Korea NHANES  
Non-Hispanic White (n = 944) Non-Hispanic Black (n = 324) Hispanicb (n = 227) Korean (n = 3808) p value
Age, years 59.8(0.4) 59.6 (0.7) 59.6 (0.8) 63.6 (0.2) < 0.001
Age group, years < 0.001
 40–49 18.7 (1.7) 20.7 (2.9) 19.7 (3.1) 11.3 (0.7)  
 50–59 31.2 (2.2) 30.9 (2.6) 29.9 (3.9) 23.2 (0.9)  
 60–69 30.3 (2.4) 24.1 (1.8) 32.0 (3.0) 31.2 (0.9)  
 70–79 19.8 (1.3) 24.2 (2.5) 18.3 (2.7) 34.3 (1.0)  
Men, % 59.1 (2.4) 60.2 (2.3) 69.2 (4.2) 73.8 (0.9) < 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 27.7 (0.2) 27.8 (0.4) 28. 6 (0.4) 23.7 (0.1) < 0.001
BMI group 0.023
 Underweight 1.9 (0.5) 3.1 (1.2) 0 2.7 (0.4)  
 Normal 32.3 (1.6) 35.1 (2.8) 27.4 (3.4) 38.9 (1.1)  
 Overweight 37.8 (1.5) 33.4 (2.3) 41.9 (3.7) 27.6 (0.9)  
 Obese 27.9 (1.4) 28.4 (2.6) 30.7 (3.8) 30.7 (1.0)  
Smoking < 0.001
 Current 33.5 (2.4) 42.4 (3.4) 26.4 (2.8) 41.6 (1.0)  
 Former 39.9 (2.1) 26.4 (2.2) 35.5 (2.9) 27.9 (0.9)  
 Never 26.6 (2.1) 31.3 (2.8) 38.1 (3.3) 30.5 (1.0)  
Spirometry
 FVC, % predicted 96.5 (0.7) 96.7 (1.1) 97.9 (1.4) 90.5 (0.3) < 0.001
 FEV1, % predicted 80.3 (0.7) 77.5 (1.1) 82.6 (1.3) 77.8 (0.3) < 0.001
COPD severityc 0.106
 Mild 52.3 (2.3) 46.5 (3.1) 60.4 (4.1) 46.4 (1.0)  
 Moderate 41.3 (2.2) 44.4 (3.1) 36.0 (4.3) 48.7 (1.1)  
Severe-to-very severe 6.4 (0.8) 9.2 (2.3) 3.6 (1.1) 4.9 (0.4)  
  1. aValues are presented as weighted means (standard error of the mean) or weighted percentage (standard error of the percentage)
  2. bHispanic was defined as Mexican American or other Hispanic
  3. cParticipants were categorized as having mild (FEV1 / FVC < 0.7 and FEV1 ≥ 80% predicted), moderate (FEV1 / FVC < 0.7 and 50% ≤ FEV1 < 80% predicted), or severe-to-very severe (FEV1 / FVC < 0.7 and FEV1 < 50% predicted) disease based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guideline
  4. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), BMI body mass index, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC forced expiratory vital capacity