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Table 2 Predicted mean differences of fetal parameters by ethnicity and gestational diabetes at different time points during gestation

From: Gestational diabetes and ultrasound-assessed fetal growth in South Asian and White European women: findings from a prospective pregnancy cohort

   Predicted mean difference (95% CI)
HC (mm) N 12 weeks 24 weeks 40 weeks
Ethnicity
 White European 4744 Ref Ref Ref
 South Asian 5956 0.3 (− 0.5; 1.0) − 1.0 (− 1.5; − 0.5) − 5.4 (− 6.1; − 4.6)
GDM
 No 9868 Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 832 − 1.8 (− 2.6; − 1.0) 0.9 (0.3; 1.4) 0.1 (− 0.8; 1.1)
Ethnicity/GDM
 White European/no GDM 4534 Ref Ref Ref
 White European/GDM 210 − 2.7 (− 4.3; − 1.1) 1.5 (0.5; 2.6) 0.1 (− 1.7; 1.9)
 South Asian/no GDM 5334 0.2 (− 0.6; 0.9) − 0.9 (− 1.4; − 0.4) − 5.3 (− 6.1; − 4.5)
 South Asian/GDM 622 − 1.4 (− 2.5; − 0.3) − 0.3 (− 1.0; 0.5) − 5.2 (− 6.5; − 4.0)
FL (mm) N 12 weeks 24 weeks 40 weeks
Ethnicity
 White European 4740 Ref Ref Ref
 South Asian 5949 0.1 (− 0.2; 0.5) 0.3 (0.1; 0.4) 0.0 (− 0.4; 0.3)
GDM
 No 9857 Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 832 − 0.6 (− 0.9; − 0.3) 0.1 (− 0.1; 0.2) 0.1 (− 0.2; 0.4)
Ethnicity/GDM
 White European/no GDM 4530 Ref Ref Ref
 White European/GDM 210 0.1 (− 0.6; 0.7) 0.1 (− 0.2; 0.4) 0.6 (0.1; 1.1)
 South Asian/no GDM 5327 0.2 (− 0.1; 0.6) 0.3 (0.1; 0.4) 0.1 (− 0.3; 0.4)
 South Asian/GDM 622 − 0.6 (− 1.1; − 0.2) 0.3 (0.1; 0.5) 0.0 (− 0.5; 0.4)
AC (mm) N 16 weeks 24 weeks 40 weeks
Ethnicity
 White European 4648 Ref Ref Ref
 South Asian 5872 − 1.5 (− 2.3; − 0.8) − 3.3 (− 4.0; − 2.5) − 12.4 (− 13.9; − 10.9)
GDM
 No 9690 Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 830 − 1.7 (− 2.5; − 0.9) 0.9 (0.2; 1.7) 5.1 (3.5; 6.8)
Ethnicity/GDM
 White European/no GDM 4438 Ref Ref Ref
 White European/GDM 210 − 2.2 (− 3.7; − 0.7) 0.9 (− 0.5; 2.3) 4.3 (1.1; 7.5)
 South Asian/no GDM 5252 − 1.6 (− 2.4; − 0.8) − 3.2 (− 4.0; − 2.5) − 12.5 (− 14.0; − 11.0)
 South Asian/GDM 620 − 3.1 (− 4.3; − 2.0) − 2.3 (− 3.4; − 1.2) − 7.1 (− 9.4; − 4.8)
EFW (g) N 16 weeks 24 weeks 40 weeks
Ethnicity
 White European 4745 Ref Ref Ref
 South Asian 5956 2 (− 2; 6) − 17 (− 24; − 11) − 206 (− 232; − 180)
GDM
 No 9869 Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 832 − 6 (− 10; − 2) 7 (0; 13) 171 (140; 202)
Ethnicity/GDM
 White European/no GDM 4535 Ref Ref Ref
 White European/GDM 210 − 3 (− 11; 4) 5 (− 6; 17) 204 (145; 263)
 South Asian/no GDM 5334 2 (− 2; 6) − 17 (− 24; − 11) − 203 (− 230; − 177)
 South Asian/GDM 622 − 5 (− 11; 0) − 10 (− 19; − 1) − 45 (− 86; − 3)
  1. Separate and joint associations of ethnicity and gestational diabetes with fetal growth trajectories, presented as mean differences of head circumference (HC), femur length (FL), abdominal circumference (AC), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) during early (12/16 weeks), mid (24 weeks), and late (40 weeks) gestation. All mean differences are estimated using multilevel fractional polynomial models with adjustment for infant sex, maternal age at delivery, parity, height, body mass index, education level, smoking, and alcohol use during pregnancy, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Models were additionally adjusted for gestational diabetes [in analyses examining mean differences by ethnicity (White European vs. South Asian)] and ethnicity [in analyses examining mean differences by gestational diabetes (yes vs. no)]. GDM gestational diabetes, CI confidence interval