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Table 3 Meta-analyses and subgroup analyses results

From: Offspring outcomes after prenatal interventions for common mental disorders: a meta-analysis

   N No. of participants g 95% CI p I 2 95% CI p a
Effect of prenatal interventions on offspring outcomes (BW, GA, Apgar) All studies [45, 47, 49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57, 59, 60] 13 1796 0.09 − 0.03 to 0.21 0.14 23 0–60  
Effect of prenatal interventions for each offspring outcome BW [45, 47, 49, 50, 52,53,54,55, 57, 59] 11 1583 0.08 − 0.06 to 0.22 0.27 39 0–70  
GA [49, 50, 52, 53, 55,56,57, 59, 60] 10 1669 0.03 − 0.06 to 0.13 0.49 0 0–53  
Apgar [51, 52, 55, 57] 4 663 0.13 − 0.28 to 0.54 0.53 68 0–87  
Subgroup analyses
 Type of diagnosis* Anxiety [52,53,54,55,56,57] 6 852 − 0.01 − 0.22 to 0.20 0.89 40 0–75 0.41
 BW [52,53,54,55, 57] 5 668 0 − 0.33 to 0.32 1 70 22–88  
 GA [52,53,54,55,56] 5 779 − 0.06 − 0.24 to 0.12 0.54 27 0–71  
Depression [45, 47,48,49,50] 5 575 0.02 − 0.15 to 0.18 0.86 0 0–79  
 BW [45, 47,48,49,50] 5 575 0.01 − 0.20 to 0.23 0.90 22 0–68  
 GA [45, 48,49,50] 4 550 0.05 − 0.12 to 0.21 0.58 0 0–85  
Other [51, 52, 59, 60] 4 283 0.22 − 0.90 to 0.54 0.17 62 0–85  
 BW [52, 59, 60] 3 254 0.06 − 0.15 to 0.27 0.57 22 0–97  
 GA [52, 59, 60] 3 254 0.07 − 0.19 to 0.33 0.60 45 0–84  
 Risk of bias High [45, 47, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59] 7 786 0.21 − 0.00 to 0.42 0.05 31 0–70 0.09
Low [49, 50, 52, 54, 56, 60] 6 1010 − 0.00 − 0.13 to 0.12 0.97 0 0–61  
 Diagnosis through clinical interview or self-report Clinical interview [45, 47, 50] 3 203 0.20 − 0.07 to 0.47 0.15 0 0–90 0.43
Self-report [49, 51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60] 10 1593 0.08 − 0.06 to 0.22 0.28 36 0–70  
 Type of intervention Psychotherapy [47, 49,50,51,52, 57, 59] 7 1130 0.08 − 0.10 to 0.27 0.40 39 0–75 0.67
Other [45, 53,54,55,56, 60] 6 666 0.13 − 0.02 to 0.28 0.09 0 0–74  
 Report of sign. Effect of intervention on mother? No [52, 55, 59, 60] 4 483 0.05 − 0.18 to 0.28 0.68 31 0–75 0.64
Yes [45, 47, 49,50,51, 53, 54, 56, 57] 9 1313 0.11 − 0.04 to 0.26 0.14 29 0–67  
  1. aThe p value indicates whether the subgroups differ from each other. g = Hedges’ g, 95% CI = confidence interval 95% of Hedges’ g. *In this subgroup analysis, the Verbeek 2016 study subgroups depression, anxiety, and combined (other) were analyzed separately. BW birth weight, GA gestational age. Superscript numbers refer to included studies in each analysis