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Table 2 Estimated annual burden of herpes zoster in the Netherlands among ≥50-year-olds using January 2017 population data. The 95%-credibility intervals were based on a probabilistic sensitivity analysis using 10,000 Monte-Carlo simulations

From: Cost-effectiveness of vaccination of immunocompetent older adults against herpes zoster in the Netherlands: a comparison between the adjuvanted subunit and live-attenuated vaccines

  Age group Total 95% CrI− 95% CrI+
50–59 years 60–69 years 70–79 years 80–89 years ≥ 90 years
Population 2,473,222 2,083,983 1,379,744 641,923 121,068 6,699,940   
Health outcomes
 HZ cases 13,160 16,065 14,772 8557 1614 54,169 52,130 56,174
 Hospitalizations 61 101 131 118 22 434 382 489
 1-day hospital admissions 88 201 301 181 34 805 734 879
 HZ deaths 0 0 1 6 7 15 9 21
 PHN cases 289 1179 1084 628 118 3298 2474 4118
 LYs lost 4 7 16 39 27 93 56 144
 QALYs lost 531 941 873 530 116 2992 2418 3771
Costs (€, millions)
 Healthcare costs 2.27 3.50 3.37 1.91 0.23 11.28 9.57 13.43
  GP visits, medication, specialist visits 2.08 3.12 2.93 1.70 0.32 10.14 8.49 12.25
  Hospitalizations 0.18 0.37 0.48 0.53 0.10 1.66 1.41 1.93
  1-day hospital admissions 0.02 0.06 0.08 0.05 0.01 0.23 0.21 0.25
  Averted costs due to HZ preterm mortalitya − 0.02 − 0.04 − 0.12 − 0.37 − 0.20 − 0.75 − 1.12 − 0.46
 Non-healthcare costs 5.02 2.28 0.25 0.14 0.03 7.73 5.85 9.83
  Travel costs 0.14 0.20 0.19 0.11 0.02 0.66 0.54 0.80
  OTC medication 0.04 0.07 0.06 0.04 0.01 0.22 0.18 0.26
  Productivity loss 4.84 2.01 7.44 4.99 11.81
Total costs 7.29 5.78 3.62 2.05 0.26 19.59 16.33 24.62
  1. CrI credibility interval, GP general practitioner, HZ herpes zoster, LY life year, OTC over-the-counter, PHN post-herpetic neuralgia, QALY quality-adjusted life year
  2. aAverted healthcare costs due to HZ-related preterm mortality were estimated using the life expectancy and annual treatment costs per year from a standardized tool [40]